position in Central, Russia
Moscow ( MOS-koh, US chiefly MOS-kow ; [ 10 ] [ 11 ] russian : Москва, tr. Moskva, IPA : [ mɐˈskva ] ( ) ) is the capital and largest city of Russia. The city stands on the Moskva River in Central Russia, with a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits, [ 12 ] over 17 million residents in the urban area, [ 13 ] and over 20 million residents in the metropolitan area. [ 14 ] The city covers an area of 2,511 squarely kilometres ( 970 sq mile ), while the urban area covers 5,891 square kilometres ( 2,275 sq secret intelligence service ), [ 13 ] and the metropolitan area covers over 26,000 straight kilometres ( 10,000 sq nautical mile ). [ 14 ] Moscow is among the earth ‘s largest cities ; being the most populous city entirely in Europe, the largest urban and metropolitan area in Europe, [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and the largest city by nation area on the european continent. [ 15 ]
Reading: Moscow – Wikipedia
first documented in 1147, Moscow grew to become a booming and knock-down city that served as the capital of the Grand Duchy that bears its namesake. When the Grand Duchy of Moscow evolved into the Tsardom of Russia, Moscow still remained as the political and economic kernel for most of the Tsardom ‘s history. When the Tsardom was reformed into the russian Empire, the capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg diminishing the determine of the city. The capital was then moved second to Moscow following the October Revolution and the city was brought back as the political center of the russian SFSR and then the Soviet Union. [ 16 ] In the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Moscow remained as the capital city of the contemporary and newly established russian Federation. The northernmost and coldest megacity in the world, with a history that spans eight centuries, Moscow is governed as a federal city ( since 1993 ) [ 17 ] that serves as the political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe. As an alpha worldly concern city, [ 18 ] Moscow has one of the global ‘s largest urban economies. [ 19 ] The city is one of the fastest-growing tourist destinations in the global, [ 20 ] and is one of Europe ‘s most chew the fat cities. Moscow is home to the fourth-highest number of billionaires of any city in the universe, [ 21 ] and has the highest count of billionaires of any city in Europe. The Moscow International Business Center is one of the largest fiscal centres in Europe and the world, and features some of Europe ‘s tallest skyscrapers. Muscovites enjoy populace digital services more than anywhere else in Europe, [ 22 ] and the best e-government services in the universe. [ 23 ] Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, and one of the horde cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. [ 24 ] As the historic core of Russia, Moscow serves as the home of numerous russian artists, scientists, and sports figures due to the bearing of its respective museums, academic and political institutions, and theatres. The city is home to respective UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and is well known for its display of russian architecture, peculiarly its historic Red Square, and buildings such as the Saint Basil ‘s Cathedral and the Moscow Kremlin, of which the latter serves as the seat of power of the Government of Russia. Moscow is home to many russian companies in numerous industries and is served by a comprehensive transit network, which includes four external airports, nine railway terminals, a streetcar system, a monorail system, and most notably the Moscow Metro, the busiest metro system in Europe, and one of the largest rapid theodolite systems in the universe. The city has over 40 percentage of its district covered by greenery, making it one of the greenest cities in Europe and the world. [ 15 ] [ 25 ]
etymology [edit ]
The identify of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] There have been proposed respective theories of the origin of the mention of the river. finno-ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several pre-Slavic tribes which originally inhabited the area, called the river purportedly Mustajoki, in english : Black river. It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] The most linguistically reasoned and widely accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic settle * mŭzg -/ muzg – from the Proto-Indo-European * meu – “ moisture ”, [ 27 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] indeed the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh. [ 26 ] Its cognates include russian : музга, muzga “ pool, make ”, lithuanian : mazgoti and latvian : mazgāt “ to wash ”, Sanskrit : májjati “ to drown ”, Latin : mergō “ to dip, steep ”. [ 26 ] [ 30 ] In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine and North Macedonia. [ 32 ] additionally, there are similarly named places in Poland like Mozgawa. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 30 ] The original Old russian shape of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, * Mosky, [ 26 ] [ 27 ] therefore it was one of a few Slavic ū -stem noun. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a geomorphologic transformation at the early phase of the development of the language, as a result the beginning written mentions in the twelfth hundred were Московь, Moskovĭ ( objective case ), Москви, Moskvi ( locative role lawsuit ), Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě ( possessive sheath ). [ 26 ] [ 27 ] From the latter forms came the modern Russian list Москва, Moskva, which is a result of morphologic abstraction with the numerous Slavic ā -stem nouns. however, the class Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as english : Moscow, german : Moskau, french : Moscou, georgian : მოსკოვი, latvian : Maskava, Ottoman Turkish : Moskov, Bashkir : Мәскәү, Tatar : Mäskäw, Kazakh : Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash : Мускав, Muskav, etc. In a exchangeable manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial mention for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it vitamin a well came English Muscovy and muscovite. [ 33 ] assorted other theories ( of Celtic, Iranian, Caucasic origins ), having small or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporaneous linguists. [ 26 ] [ 27 ]
other names [edit ]
Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and leading condition within the nation : The Third Rome ( Третий Рим ), the Whitestone One ( Белокаменная ), the First Throne ( Первопрестольная ), the Forty Soroks ( Сорок Сороков ) ( “ sorok ” meaning both “ forty, a great many ” and “ a district or parish ” in Old Russian ). Moscow is besides one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is “ москвич ” ( moskvich ) for male or “ москвичка ” ( moskvichka ) for female, rendered in English as Muscovite. The list “ Moscow ” is abbreviated “ MSK ” ( МСК in Russian ). [ citation needed ]
history [edit ]
prehistory [edit ]
archaeological digs show that the web site of nowadays ‘s Moscow and the surrounding area have been inhabited since clock time immemorial. Among the earliest finds are relics of the Lyalovo polish, which experts assign to the Neolithic period, the last phase of the Stone Age. [ 34 ] They confirm that the first inhabitants of the sphere were hunters and gatherers. Around 950 AD, two Slavic tribes, Vyatichi and Krivichi, settled here. possibly the Vyatichi formed the core of Moscow ‘s autochthonal population. [ 35 ]
early history ( 1147–1283 ) [edit ]
The first known citation to Moscow dates from 1147 as a touch target of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav Olegovich. At the fourth dimension it was a minor town on the westerly bound of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. The chronicle says, “ Come, my brother, to Moskov ” ( Приди ко мне, брате, в Москов ). [ 36 ] In 1156, Knyaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a forest wall and a moat. In the course of the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus ‘, the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants. [ citation needed ] The lumber fort na Moskvě “ on the Moscow River ” was inherited by Daniel, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, in the 1260s, at the time considered the least valuable of his founder ‘s possessions. Daniel was still a child at the fourth dimension, and the adult garrison was governed by tiuns ( deputies ), appointed by Daniel ‘s paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver. [ citation needed ] Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the might struggles of the principality with permanent achiever, siding with his buddy Dmitry in his offer for the rule of Novgorod. From 1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality aboard Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord ‘s Epiphany and to Saint Daniel. [ 37 ]
Grand Duchy ( 1283–1547 ) [edit ]
Daniel ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as a golden city that would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the 1320s. On the correct bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of eight kilometres ( 5 mile ) from the Kremlin, not late than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite, which is nowadays the Danilov Monastery. Daniel died in 1303, at the long time of 42. Before his end, he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery. Moscow was quite stable and booming for many years and attracted a large act of refugees from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture, whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the enthrone of the principality of Vladimir. Ivan I finally defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal. By paying high protection, Ivan won an significant concession from the Khan .
spassky Cathedral ( Moscow ‘s oldest extant construct ), built c. 1357 While the Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow ‘s influence, when the increase of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most potent cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a unite russian united states army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. Afterward, Moscow took the precede function in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had last broken the Russians free from Tatar see, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would finally encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands .
In 1462 Ivan III, ( 1440–1505 ) became Grand Prince of Moscow ( then depart of the chivalric Muscovy state ). He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. By 1500 it had a population of 100,000 and was one of the largest cities in the global. He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians. thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres ( 170,000 to 1,080,000 feather miles ). He took see of the ancient “ Novgorod Chronicle “ and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regimen. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] The original Moscow Kremlin was built in the fourteenth century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invite architects from Renaissance Italy, such as Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo who designed the new palace for the prince. The Kremlin walls as they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495. The Kremlin ‘s Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present stature in 1600. A trading colonization, or posad, grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the sphere known as Zaradye ( Зарядье ). In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square, primitively named the Hollow Field ( Полое поле ) appeared. In 1508–1516, the italian architect Aleviz Fryazin ( Novy ) arranged for the structure of a moat in front of the easterly wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya. This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a distance of 541 metres ( 1,775 feet ), width of 36 metres ( 118 feet ), and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres ( 31–43 feet ) was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with broken, four-metre-thick ( 13-foot ) cogged-brick walls .
Tsardom ( 1547–1721 ) [edit ]
In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular defenses were built : Kitay-gorod ( Китай-город ), the White City ( Белый город ) and the Earthen City ( Земляной город ). however, in 1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean Tatars captured Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. [ 40 ] The annals phonograph record that alone 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived .
The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time were held spinal column by new defense walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon. In 1592, an out worldly concern rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River. As an outermost line of defense, a chain of powerfully fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, chiefly the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy, Danilov, Simonov, Novospasskiy, and Andronikov monasteries, most of which immediately house museums. From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya, the “ White-Walled. ” The city ‘s limits as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are now marked by the Garden Ring. Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the seventeenth hundred, were known as Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky ( owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St. Nicholas that hang over them ). The end two were directly opposite the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil ‘s Cathedral .
“ Sigismundian ” plan of Moscow ( 1610 ), named after Sigismund III of Poland, is the last city plan compiled before the destruction of the city in 1612 by retreating polish troops and subsequent changes to the street net. orientation : north is at the right, west at the top The russian famine of 1601–03 killed possibly 100,000 in Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its rule Sigismund III tried to take the Russian enthrone. In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov czar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. The seventeenth century was rich in popular risings, such as the dismissal of Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders ( 1612 ), the Salt Riot ( 1648 ), the Copper Riot ( 1662 ), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682. During the first half of the seventeenth hundred, the population of Moscow doubled from approximately 100,000 to 200,000. It expanded beyond its ramparts in the subsequently seventeenth century. It is estimated, that in the in-between of the seventeenth century, 20 % of Moscow suburb ‘s inhabitants were from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, practically all of them being driven from their fatherland to Moscow by Muscovite invaders. [ 41 ] By 1682, there were 692 households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the run of the Russo-Polish War ( 1654–1667 ). These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda, after Ruthenian meshchane “ town people ”. The condition meshchane ( мещане ) acquired dyslogistic connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means “ junior-grade bourgeois ” or “ narrow-minded philistine ”. [ 42 ] The entire city of the late seventeenth hundred, including the slobodas that grew up outside the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow ‘s Central Administrative Okrug. numerous disasters befell the city. The blight epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and 1654–1656. [ 43 ] The infestation killed upwards of 80 % of the people in 1654–55. Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648. [ 44 ] In 1712 Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. Moscow ceased to be Russia ‘s capital, except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the charm of the Supreme Privy Council .
Empire ( 1721–1917 ) [edit ]
Moskva riverfront in the 19th century After losing the status as the capital of the empire, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the seventeenth century to 130,000 in 1750. But after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915. The 1770–1772 russian harass killed up to 100,000 people in Moscow. [ 45 ]
By 1700, the construct of cobble roads had begun. In November 1730, the permanent wave street light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. In 1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates, discharge lamps were installed. In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 40 kilometres ( 25 security service ) retentive, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Its pipeline is traced nowadays by a number of streets called val ( “ ramparts ” ). between 1781 and 1804 the Mytischinskiy water pipe ( the first in Russia ) was built. In 1813, following the end of much of the city during the french occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial derivative replanning of the city-centre. Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time was the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the Moscow Manege ( Riding School ), and the Bolshoi Theatre. In 1903 the Moskvoretskaya water issue was completed. In the early nineteenth hundred, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and ( following the 17th-century improvements ) stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – “ raskats ”. The Tsar Cannon was located on the chopine of the Lobnoye mesto. The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway, was completed in 1746, its Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the sixteenth century. It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was paved in the 1780s. Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by Matvey Kazakov .
When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated. It is suspected that the Moscow fire was chiefly the consequence of russian sabotage. Napoleon ‘s Grande Armée was forced to retreat and was closely annihilated by the devastating russian winter and sporadic attacks by russian military forces. american samoa many as 400,000 of Napoleon ‘s soldiers died during this fourth dimension. [ 46 ]
Moscow State University was established in 1755. Its main building was reconstructed after the 1812 burn by Domenico Giliardi. The Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper. The Arbat Street had been in universe since at least the fifteenth century, but it was developed into a prestigious sphere during the eighteenth hundred. It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt completely in the early nineteenth century. In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military coach. Smolensky Rail place ( antecedent of contemporary Belorussky Rail Terminal ) was inaugurated in 1870. Sokolniki Park, in the eighteenth century the home of the czar ‘s falconers well outside Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in the belated nineteenth hundred and was developed into a populace municipal park in 1878. The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in 1902. In January 1905, the initiation of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow ‘s first official mayor. When Catherine II came to exponent in 1762, the city ‘s filth and the spirit of sewage were depicted by observers as a symptom of disorderly lifestyles of lower-class Russians recently arrived from the farms. Elites called for improving sanitation, which became function of Catherine ‘s plans for increasing see over social life sentence. National political and military successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated efforts to produce a more enlighten and stable society. There was less speak about the smell and the poor conditions of public health. however, in the wake of Russia ‘s failures in the Crimean War in 1855–56, confidence in the ability of the express to maintain decree in the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth bet on on the agenda. [ 47 ]
soviet period ( 1917–1991 ) [edit ]
City design of Moscow, 1917
In November 1917, upon learn of the bristle happen in Petrograd, Moscow ‘s Bolsheviks besides began their arise. On November 2 ( 15 ), 1917, after grave active, soviet power was established in Moscow. [ 48 ] then Vladimir Lenin, fearing potential foreign invasion, moved the capital from Petrograd ( Saint Petersburg ) back to Moscow on March 12, 1918. [ 49 ] The Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre of the new state. With the change in values imposed by communist political orientation, the tradition of preservation of cultural heritage was broken. autonomous preservation societies, flush those that defended only profane landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A newfangled anti-religious political campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with the collectivization of peasants ; the destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. In 1937 several letters were written to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to rename Moscow to “ Stalindar ” or “ Stalinodar, ” one from an aged pensioner whose dream was to “ live in Stalinodar ” and had selected the name to represent the “ endowment ” ( dar ) of the ace of Stalin. [ 50 ] Stalin rejected this trace, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai Yezhov, he was outraged, saying “ What do I need this for ? ”. This was following Stalin banning the rename of places in his diagnose in 1936. [ 51 ] During World War II, the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers ( more than 160,000 people ), 25 battalions ( 18,000 people ), and four mastermind regiments were formed among the Muscovites. Between October 1941 and January 1942, the german Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the run of the Battle of Moscow. many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a country of siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defenses, while the city was bombarded from the air. On May 1, 1944, a decoration “ For the defensive structure of Moscow ” and in 1947 another decoration “ In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow ” was instituted. Both german and soviet casualties during the conflict of Moscow have been a subject of argue, as respective sources provide slightly different estimates. sum casualties between September 30, 1941, and January 7, 1942, are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] During the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the invention of high-rise apartments. There are over 11,000 of these standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, house the majority of Moscow ‘s population, making it by far the city with the most high-rise buildings. [ 55 ] Apartments were built and partially furnished in the factory before being raised and stacked into improbable column. The popular Soviet-era comic movie Irony of Fate parodies this construction method. The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958 at 37 kilometres ( 23 miles ) from the city center to the northwest, along with the Leningradskoye Shosse, and incorporated as one of Moscow ‘s administrative okrugs. Moscow State University moved to its campus on Sparrow Hills in 1953. In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down ( by and large in rural areas ) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, entirely sixteen remained by 1964 ; of Moscow ‘s fifty dollar bill churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished .
On May 8, 1965, ascribable to the actual twentieth anniversary of the victory in World War II, Moscow was awarded a entitle of the Hero City. In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games .
The MKAD ( ring road ) was opened in 1961. It had four lanes running 109 kilometres ( 68 miles ) along the city borders. The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the city of Moscow until the 1980s when outlying suburb beyond the ring road began to be incorporated. In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which were boycotted by the United States and several other westerly countries due to the Soviet Union ‘s interest in Afghanistan in recently 1979. In 1991 Moscow was the view of a coup try by bourgeois communists opposed to the free reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev .
late history ( 1991–present ) [edit ]
When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow remained the capital of the russian SFSR ( on December 25, 1991, the russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation ). Since then, a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles. The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to 2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million. Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls ( before 1991 ) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Since then, however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban sprawl, created by heavy demand for single-family dwellings as opposed to herd apartments. In 1995–1997 the MKAD gang road was widened from the initial four to ten lanes. In December 2002 Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo became the beginning Moscow Metro post that opened beyond the limits of MKAD. The third Ring Road, intermediate between the early on 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era out ring road, was completed in 2004. The greenbelt is becoming more and more disconnected, and satellite cities are appearing at the periphery. Summer dacha are being converted into year-round residences, and with the proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion. [ 56 ] Multiple erstwhile churches and early examples of architectural inheritance that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored, such as the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. In 2010s Moscow ‘s Administration has launched some retentive duration projects like the Moja Ulitsa ( in English : My Street ) urban renovation program [ 57 ] or the Residency renovation one. [ 58 ] By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012, southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 public square kilometers ( 421 to 970 sq secret intelligence service ), resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the european continent by area ; it besides gained an extra population of 233,000 people. [ 59 ] [ 60 ]
geography [edit ]
location [edit ]
Satellite horizon of Moscow and its nearby suburbs Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for fair over 500 km ( 311 michigan ) through the East european Plain in central Russia. 49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city ‘s limits. The elevation of Moscow at the All-Russia Exhibition Center ( VVC ), where the leading Moscow upwind station is situated, is 156 metres ( 512 feet ). Teplostanskaya upland is the city ‘s highest point at 255 metres ( 837 feet ). [ 61 ] The width of Moscow city ( not limiting MKAD ) from west to east is 39.7 kilometer ( 24.7 michigan ), and the length from north to south is 51.8 kilometer ( 32.2 mile ) .
time [edit ]
Moscow serves as the reference point for the clock zone used in most of european Russia, Belarus and the Republic of Crimea. The areas operate in what is referred to in international standards as Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК), which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. Daylight saving time is nobelium long observed. According to the geographic longitude the average solar noon in Moscow occurs at 12:30. [ 62 ]
climate [edit ]
Moscow has a humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfb ) with retentive, cold ( although average by russian standards ) winters normally lasting from mid-november to the end of March, and affectionate summers. More extreme continental climates at the lapp latitude- such as parts of Eastern Canada or Siberia – have much colder winters than Moscow, suggesting that there is placid meaning temperance from the Atlantic Ocean despite the fact that Moscow is far from the sea. Weather can fluctuate widely, with temperatures ranging from −25 °C ( −13 °F ) in the city and −30 °C ( −22 °F ) in the suburb to above 5 °C ( 41 °F ) in the winter, and from 10 to 35 °C ( 50 to 95 °F ) in the summer. [ 63 ]
typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July, and August are around a comfortable 20 to 26 °C ( 68 to 79 °F ), but during heat waves ( which can occur between May and September ), day gamey temperatures often exceed 30 °C ( 86 °F ), sometimes for a week or two at a time. In the winter, average temperatures normally drop to approximately −10 °C ( 14 °F ), though about every winter there are periods of warmheartedness with day temperatures rising above 0 °C ( 32 °F ), and periods of cooling with nox temperatures falling below −20 °C ( −4 °F ). These periods normally last about a week or two. The growing season in Moscow normally lasts for 156 days normally around May 1 to October 5. [ 64 ] The highest temperature always recorded was 38.2 °C ( 100.8 °F ) [ 65 ] at the VVC weather station and 39.0 °C ( 102.2 °F ) in the concentrate of Moscow and Domodedovo airport on July 29, 2010, during the strange 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. Record high temperatures were recorded for January, March, April, May, July, August, November, and December in 2007–2014. [ 66 ] The average July temperature from 1981 to 2010 is 19.2 °C ( 66.6 °F ). The lowest always recorded temperature was −42.1 °C ( −43.8 °F ) in January 1940. Snow, which is introduce for about five months a class, much begins to fall mid-October, while coke cover lies in November and melts at the begin of April. On average, Moscow has 1731 hours of sunlight per year, varying from a humble of 8 % in December to 52 % from May to August. [ 67 ] This large annual magnetic declination is due to convective cloud geological formation. In the winter, moist air from the Atlantic condenses in the cold continental inside, resulting in very overcast conditions. however, this same continental influence results in well sunnier summers than oceanic cities of like latitude such as Edinburgh. Between 2004 and 2010, the median was between 1800 and 2000 hours with a tendency to more fair weather in summer months, up to a phonograph record 411 hours in July 2014, 79 % of potential cheerfulness. December 2017 was the darkest month in Moscow since records began, with merely six minutes of sunlight. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Temperatures in the center of Moscow are often significantly higher than in the outskirts and nearby suburbs, particularly in winter. For exercise, if the average February temperature in the northeast of Moscow is −6.7 °C ( 19.9 °F ), in the suburb it is about −9 °C ( 16 °F ). [ 70 ] The temperature difference between the kernel of Moscow and nearby areas of Moscow Oblast can sometimes be more than 10 °C ( 18 °F ) on frigid winter nights .
|Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1991–2020, records 1879–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−42.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||53
|Average rainy days||8||6||9||15||16||16||15||16||16||17||13||8||155|
|Average snowy days||25||23||15||6||1||0||0||0||0.3||5||17||24||116|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||81||74||68||67||72||74||78||82||83||86||86||78|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||33||72||128||170||265||279||271||238||147||78||32||18||1,731|
|Percent possible sunshine||14||27||35||40||53||53||52||51||38||24||13||8||34|
|Average ultraviolet index||0||1||2||3||5||6||6||5||3||1||1||0||3|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net, Thermograph.ru, Meteoweb.ru (sunshine hours)|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)|
Climate change [edit ]
Below is the 1961–1990 normals board. The annual temperature rose from 5.0 °C ( 41.0 °F ) [ 76 ] to 5.8 °C ( 42.4 °F ) in the new 1981–2010 normals. In 2019, the average annual temperature reached a record high of 7.8 °C ( 46.0 °F ) [ 77 ]
|Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1961–1990|
|Average high °C (°F)||−6.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−9.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.3
holocene changes in Moscow ‘s regional climate, since it is in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, are much cited by climate scientists as evidence of global warming [ citation needed ], though by definition, climate change is ball-shaped, not regional. During the summer, extreme inflame is frequently observed in the city ( 2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, 2011 ). Along with a southern separate of Central Russia, [ 81 ] [ 82 ] after late years of hot summer seasons, the climate of the city gets hot-summer classification trends. Winter besides became significantly milder : for model, the average January temperature in the early 1900s was −12.0 °C ( 10.4 °F ), while now it is about −7.0 °C ( 19.4 °F ). [ 83 ] At the end of January–February it is often cold, with frosts reaching −30.0 °C ( −22.0 °F ) a few nights per year ( 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 ). The last ten was the warmest in the history of meteorologic observations of Moscow. temperature changes in the city are depicted in the table below :
|Climate data for Moscow (2009–2018, VVC)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.7
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||37||65||142||213||274||299||323||242||171||88||33||14||1,901|
|Wind direction in Moscow from 2002 to 2012 (average values)|
Demographics [edit ]
population [edit ]
|Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.|
population of Moscow by year According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of Moscow was 11,503,501 ; [ 85 ] improving from 10,382,754 recorded in the 2002 Census. [ 86 ]
|Ethnic groups in Moscow, 2010 census
( excluding migrant workers and illegal immigrants )
- 668,409 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
The official population of Moscow is based on those holding “ permanent wave residency “. According to Russia ‘s Federal Migration Service, Moscow holds 1.8 million official “ guests ” who have irregular residency on the basis of visa or early documentation, giving a legal population of 13.3 million. The count of Illegal immigrants, the huge majority originating from Central Asia, is estimated to be an extra 1 million people, [ 88 ] giving a total population of about 14.3 million. sum birthrate rate : [ 89 ]
- 2010 – 1.25
- 2014 – 1.34
- 2015 – 1.41
- 2016 – 1.46
- 2017 – 1.38
- 2018 – 1.41
- 2019 – 1.50
- 2020 – 1.47
- Births (2016): 145,252 (11.8 per 1000)
- Deaths (2016): 123,623 (10.0 per 1000)
religion [edit ]
Christians form the majority of the city ‘s population ; most of whom adhere russian Orthodox Church. The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the principal of the church and resides in the Danilov Monastery. Moscow was called the “ city of 40 times 40 churches ” —prior to 1917. Moscow is Russia ‘s capital of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has been the area ‘s traditional religion. other religions practiced in Moscow include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Yazidism, and Rodnovery. The Moscow Mufti Council claimed that Muslims numbered around 1.5 million of 10.5 million of the city ‘s population in 2010 ; [ 92 ] There are four mosques in the city. [ 93 ]
cityscape [edit ]
architecture [edit ]
Moscow ‘s architecture is world-renowned. Moscow is the web site of Saint Basil ‘s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, ampere well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The first Kremlin was built in the center of the twelfth hundred. medieval Moscow ‘s design was of concentric walls and intersecting radial thoroughfares. This layout, adenine well as Moscow ‘s rivers, helped shape Moscow ‘s purpose in subsequent centuries. The Kremlin was rebuilt in the fifteenth century. Its towers and some of its churches were built by italian architects, lending the city some of the aura of the rebirth. From the end of the fifteenth century, the city was embellished by freemasonry structures such as monasteries, palaces, walls, towers, and churches. The city ‘s appearance had not changed much by the eighteenth hundred. Houses were made of pine and spruce logs, with shingle roofs plastered with turf or covered by birch bark. The rebuilding of Moscow in the second one-half of the eighteenth century was necessitated by constant fires and the needs of the nobility. much of the wooden city was replaced by buildings in the classical style. [ 94 ] For much of its architectural history, Moscow was dominated by Orthodox churches. however, the overall appearance of the city changed drastically during soviet times, specially as a result of Joseph Stalin ‘s large-scale campaign to “ modernize ” Moscow. Stalin ‘s plans for the city included a network of wide avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide-eyed, which, while greatly simplifying movement through the city, were constructed at the expense of a big number of historic buildings and districts. Among the many casualties of Stalin ‘s demolitions was the Sukharev Tower, a longtime city landmark, ampere well as mansions and commercial buildings The city ‘s newfound condition as the capital of a deeply laic nation, made religiously meaning buildings particularly vulnerable to demolition. Many of the city ‘s churches, which in most cases were some of Moscow ‘s oldest and most outstanding buildings, were destroyed ; some noteworthy examples include the Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. During the 1990s, both were rebuilt. many smaller churches, however, were lost. [ 95 ]
While the later Stalinist time period was characterized by the restrict of creativity and architectural invention, the earlier post-revolutionary years saw a overplus of radical raw buildings created in the city. specially luminary were the constructivist architects associated with VKHUTEMAS, responsible for such landmarks as Lenin ‘s Mausoleum. Another outstanding architect was Vladimir Shukhov, celebrated for Shukhov Tower, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov. It was built between 1919 and 1922 as a transmittance tugboat for a russian broadcasting company. [ 96 ] Shukhov besides left a durable bequest to the Constructivist architecture of early on soviet Russia. He designed roomy elongated shop class galleries, most notably the GUM department memory on Red Square, [ 96 ] bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults .
possibly the most recognizable contributions of the Stalinist menstruation are the alleged Seven Sisters, seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin. A specify feature of Moscow ‘s horizon, their inflict form was allegedly inspired by the Manhattan Municipal Building in New York City, and their style—with intricate exteriors and a large central spire—has been described as Stalinist Gothic architecture. All seven towers can be seen from most high points in the city ; they are among the tallest constructions in central Moscow apart from the Ostankino Tower, which, when it was completed in 1967, was the highest free-standing land structure in the world and nowadays remains the worldly concern ‘s seventy-second tall, ranking among buildings such as the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the CN Tower in Toronto. [ 97 ] The soviet finish of providing house for every family, and the rapid growth of Moscow ‘s population, led to the structure of big, flat housing blocks. Most of these date from the post-Stalin earned run average and the styles are much named after the leader then in world power ( Brezhnev, Khrushchev, and so forth ). They are normally ill maintained. Although the city still has some five-story apartment buildings constructed before the mid-1960s, more holocene apartment buildings are normally at least nine floors tall, and have elevators. It is estimated that Moscow has over doubly a many elevators as New York City and four times angstrom many as Chicago. Moslift, one of the city ‘s major elevator operating companies, has about 1500 elevator mechanics on call, to release residents trapped in elevators. [ 98 ] Stalinist-era buildings, by and large found in the central separate of the city, are massive and normally ornamented with Socialist naturalism motifs that imitate classical themes. however, little churches—almost constantly Eastern Orthodox – found across the city provide glimpses of its past. The Old Arbat Street, a tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from anterior to the twentieth century. many buildings found off the chief streets of the inner city ( behind the Stalinist façades of Tverskaya Street, for example ) are besides examples of bourgeois computer architecture typical of Tsarist times. Ostankino Palace, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and other large estates fair outside Moscow in the first place belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents, and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are afford to Muscovites and tourists .
Modern methods of skyscraper construction were implemented in the city for the first clock with the ambitious MIBC Attempts are being made to restore many of the city ‘s best-kept examples of pre-Soviet computer architecture. These restore structures are easily spotted by their bright new colors and immaculate façades. There are a few examples of luminary, early soviet avant-garde influence besides, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. many of these restorations were criticized for alleged contempt of historic authenticity. Facadism is besides widely practiced. [ 99 ] Later examples of interesting soviet architecture are normally marked by their impressive size and the semi- Modernist styles employed, such as with the Novy Arbat project, familiarly known as “ false tooth of Moscow ” and ill-famed for the wide-scale disturbance of a historic area in cardinal Moscow involved in the project .
Plaques on house exteriors will inform passerby that a well-known personality once lived there. frequently, the plaques are dedicated to soviet celebrities not well known outside ( or often, like with adorned generals and revolutionaries, now both inside ) of Russia. There are besides many “ museum houses ” of celebrated russian writers, composers, and artists in the city. Moscow ‘s horizon is quickly modernizing, with several new towers under construction. In late years, the city administration has been widely criticized for intemperate destruction that has affected many historical buildings. american samoa much as a third gear of historic Moscow has been destroyed in the past few years [ 100 ] to make space for luxury apartments and hotels. [ 101 ] other historical buildings, including such landmarks as the 1930 Moskva hotel and the 1913 department store Voyentorg, have been razed and reconstructed anew, with the inevitable loss of historical rate. Critics blame the government for not enforcing conservation laws : in the final 12 years, more than 50 buildings with monument status were torn down, respective of those dating back to the seventeenth century. [ 102 ] Some critics besides wonder if the money used for the reconstruction of demolished buildings could not be used for the renovation of decaying structures, which include many works by architect Konstantin Melnikov [ 103 ] and Mayakovskaya metro station. Some organizations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society [ 104 ] and Save Europe ‘s Heritage, [ 105 ] are trying to draw the international populace attention to these problems. [ 106 ]
|Panoramic view of Moscow||Panoramic view of Moscow|
Parks and landmarks [edit ]
There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, including four botanic gardens. There are 450 feather kilometres ( 170 sq nautical mile ) of green zones besides 100 square kilometres ( 39 sq secret intelligence service ) of forests. [ 107 ] Moscow is a very green city, if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and North America ; this is partially due to a history of having green “ yards ” with trees and eatage, between residential buildings. There are on average 27 square meters ( 290 sq foot ) of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Paris, 7.5 in London and 8.6 in New York. [ 108 ]
Gorky Park ( officially the Central Park of Culture and Rest named after Maxim Gorky ), was founded in 1928. The main separate ( 689,000 square metres or 170 acres ) [ 108 ] along the Moskva river contains estrades, children ‘s attractions ( including the Observation Wheel water system ponds with boats and water bicycles ), dancing, tennis courts and other sports facilities. It borders the Neskuchny Garden ( 408,000 square metres or 101 acres ), the oldest ballpark in Moscow and a former imperial mansion, created as a leave of the integration of three estates in the eighteenth century. The Garden features the green Theater, one of the largest outdoors amphitheaters in Europe, able to hold up to 15 thousand people. [ 109 ] respective parks include a section known as a “ Park of Culture and Rest ”, sometimes alongside a much wilder area ( this includes parks such as Izmaylovsky, Fili and Sokolniki ). Some parks are designated as Forest Parks ( lesopark ) .
Izmaylovsky Park, created in 1931, is one of the largest urban parks in the global along with Richmond Park in London. Its area of 15.34 square kilometres ( 5.92 sq michigan ) is six times greater than that of Central Park in New York. [ 108 ]
Sokolniki Park, named after the falcon hunting that occurred there in the past, is one of the oldest parks in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometres ( 2.3 sq security service ). A cardinal circle with a big fountain is surrounded by birch, maple, and elm tree alleys. A maze composed of green paths lies beyond the ballpark ‘s ponds. Losiny Ostrov National Park ( “ Elk Island ” National Park ), with a total area of more than 116 feather kilometres ( 45 sq mile ), borders Sokolniki Park and was Russia ‘s beginning national park. It is quite wild, and is besides known as the “ city taiga ” – elk can be seen there .
Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe. [ 110 ] It covers the territory of 3.61 square kilometres ( 1.39 sq mi ) bordering the All-Russia Exhibition Center and contains a live exhibition of more than 20 thousand species of plants from around the world, arsenic well as a lab for scientific research. It contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest, with the median long time of trees exceeding 100 years. There is a greenhouse taking up more than 5,000 straight metres ( 53,820 square feet ) of land. [ 108 ] The All-Russian Exhibition Center ( Всероссийский выставочный центр ), once known as the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition ( VSKhV ) and subsequently Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy ( VDNKh ), though formally named a “ permanent trade display ”, is one of the most big examples of Stalinist-era monumental architecture. Among the bombastic spans of a recreational ballpark, areas are scores of complicate pavilions, each representing either a arm of soviet industry and science or a USSR democracy. flush though during the 1990s it was, and for some region still is, misused as a gigantic shop center ( most of the pavilions are rented out for small businesses ), it still retains the bulk of its architectural landmarks, including two massive fountains ( Stone Flower and Friendship of Nations ) and a 360 degrees bird’s-eye film. In 2014 the park returned to the list Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy, and in the same year, huge renovation works had been started. [ 111 ] Lilac Park, founded in 1958, has a permanent sculpture display and a large rosarium. Moscow has constantly been a popular address for tourists. Some of the more celebrated attractions include the city ‘s UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, [ 112 ] which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries. [ 113 ] The Church of the Ascension at Kolomenskoye, which dates from 1532, is besides a UNESCO World Heritage Site and another democratic attraction. [ 114 ] Near the modern Tretyakov Gallery there is a sculpt garden, Museon, often called “ the cemetery of fallen monuments “ that displays statues of the former Soviet Union that were removed from their seat after its dissolution. other attractions include the Moscow Zoo, a zoological garden in two sections ( the valley of two streams ) linked by a bridge, with closely a thousand species and more than 6,500 specimens. [ 115 ] Each year, the menagerie attracts more than 1.2 million visitors. [ 115 ] Many of Moscow ‘s parks and landscaped gardens are protected natural environments .
Moscow rings [edit ]
Moscow ‘s road system is centered roughly on the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally span outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads ( “ rings ” ) .
- The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the 16th-century city wall around what used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town). The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that begins at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and ends at the Yauza River.
- The second primary ring, located outside the bell end of the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th-century wall that used to encompass part of Moscow. Moscow as viewed from the International Space Station, January 29, 2014
- The Third Ring Road, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.
- The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, was planned, but cancelled in 2011. A system of chordal highways will replace it.
aside from the aforesaid hierarchy, note 5 of Moscow Metro is a circle-shaped coil metro line ( hence the name Koltsevaya Liniya, literally “ ring line ” ), which is located between the Sadovoye Koltso and Third Transport Ring. September 10, 2016, Moscow Central Circle renovated railroad track ( former Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga ) was introduced as Line 14 of Moscow Metro. The conic railroad track initially opened in 1908 ( freight-only railway from 1934 until 2016 ). Another lap metro channel – Big Circle Line ( Bolshaya Koltsevaya Liniya ) is under construction and will be finished about 2023. The outermost call within Moscow is the Moscow Ring Road ( much called MKAD, acronym bible for Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога ), which forms the cultural boundary of the city, was established in the 1950s. It is to note the method acting of building the road ( usage of land elevation rather of concrete columns throughout the whole way ) formed a wall-like barrier that obstacles building roads under the MKAD highway itself ) .
- Before 2012 expansion of Moscow, MKAD was considered an approximate border for Moscow boundaries.
Outside Moscow, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular radiation pattern seen inside city limits, with the noteworthy examples of Betonka roads ( highways A107 and A108 ), in the first place made of concrete pads. In order to reduce transit dealings on MKAD, the new ring road ( called CKAD – Centralnaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga, Central Ring Road ) is under construction now .
Transport rings in Moscow [edit ]
acculturation [edit ]
One of the most noteworthy art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a affluent patron of the arts who donated a boastfully individual collection to the city. [ 117 ] The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the master veranda in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south trust of the Moskva River, houses works in the classical russian tradition. [ 118 ] The works of celebrated pre- Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, equally well as the works of early russian icon painters can be found here. Visitors can even see rare originals by early 15th-century iconographer Andrei Rublev. [ 118 ] The New Tretyakov gallery, created in soviet times, chiefly contains the works of soviet artists, adenine well as of a few contemporary paintings, but there is some lap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early 20th-century art. The new veranda includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin ‘s celebrated Monument to the Third International and a assortment of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can besides be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery .
Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, the father of Marina Tsvetaeva. The Pushkin Museum is similar to the british Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of exhibits on worldly concern civilisations, with many copies of ancient sculptures. however, it besides hosts paintings from every major western earned run average ; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are present in the museum ‘s solicitation. The State Historical Museum of Russia ( Государственный Исторический музей ) is a museum of russian history located between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting contemporary Russia, through invaluable artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum ‘s solicitation numbers is several million. The Polytechnical Museum, [ 119 ] founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide range of diachronic inventions and technical achievements, including android automaton from the eighteenth hundred and the inaugural soviet computers. Its collection contains more than 160,000 items. [ 120 ] The Borodino Panorama [ 121 ] museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° panorama. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon ‘s united states army, that includes besides the triumphal arch, erected in 1827. There is besides a military history museum that includes statues, and military hardware. Moscow is the heart of the russian perform arts, including ballet and film, with 68 museums [ 122 ] 103 [ 123 ] theaters, 132 cinema and 24 concert halls. Among Moscow ‘s theaters and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre [ 124 ] angstrom well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre. The Moscow International Performance Arts Center, [ 125 ] opened in 2003, besides known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. It has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall. There are besides two boastfully circuses in Moscow : Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard [ 126 ] named after Yuri Nikulin. Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics under the Monument to the Conquerors of Space at the end of Cosmonauts Alley is the cardinal memorial place for the russian quad officials. The Mosfilm studio was at the affection of many authoritative films, as it is responsible for both aesthetic and mainstream productions. [ 127 ] however, despite the continued bearing and reputation of internationally celebrated russian filmmakers, the once fecund native studios are much quiet. Rare and diachronic films may be seen in the Salut film, where films from the Museum of Cinema [ 128 ] collection are shown regularly. The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is the national museum of russian architecture by the name of the architect Alexey Shchusev near the Kremlin area. Moscow will get its own outgrowth of the Hermitage Museum in 2024, with authorities having agreed upon the final project, to be executed by Hani Rashid, co-founder of New York-based ‘Asymptote Architecture ‘ – the same chest of drawers that ‘s behind the city ‘s stock market build, the Busan-based World Business Center Solomon Tower and the Strata Tower in Abu-Dhabi. [ 129 ]
Sports [edit ]
Over 500 Olympic sports champions lived in the city by 2005. [ 130 ] Moscow is home to 63 stadiums ( besides eight football and football team idle athletics maneges ), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe ( it hosted the 1998–99 UEFA Cup, 2007–08 UEFA Champions League finals, the 1980 Summer Olympics, and the 2018 FIFA World Cup with 7 games total, including the final ). Forty other frolic complexes are located within the city, including 24 with artificial ice rink. The Olympic Stadium was the global ‘s first indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championship twice. [ 131 ] Moscow was again the host of the rival in 2010, this clock time in Krylatskoye. [ 132 ] That sphere has besides hosted the World Speed Skating Championships. There are besides seven sawhorse racing tracks in Moscow, [ 107 ] of which Central Moscow Hippodrome, [ 133 ] founded in 1834, is the largest .
CSKA Arena during a game of KHL, considered to be the second-best ice hockey league in the world Moscow was the server city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, with the yachting events being held at Tallinn, in contemporary Estonia. Large sports facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in formulation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow had made a offer for the 2012 Summer Olympics. however, when final vote commenced on July 6, 2005, Moscow was the first base city to be eliminated from far rounds. The Games were awarded to London. The most entitle ice field hockey team in the Soviet Union and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow. early big ice ice hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow, which was the moment most entitle team in the Soviet Union, and HC Spartak Moscow. The most style soviet, russian, and one of the most entitle Euroleague clubs, is the basketball golf club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow. Moscow hosted the EuroBasket in 1953 and 1965. Moscow had more winners at the USSR and Russian Chess Championship than any other city. The most entitle volleyball team in the Soviet Union and in Europe ( CEV Champions League ) is VC CSKA Moscow. In football, FC Spartak Moscow has won more backing titles in the russian Premier League than any early team. They were second only to FC Dynamo Kyiv in Soviet times. PFC CSKA Moscow became the first russian football team to win a UEFA deed, the UEFA Cup ( contemporary UEFA Europa League ). FC Lokomotiv Moscow, FC Dynamo Moscow and FC Torpedo Moscow are other professional football teams besides based in Moscow .
Moscow houses other big football, ice ice hockey, and basketball teams. Because sports organisations in the Soviet Union were once highly centralized, two of the best Union-level teams represented defense and law-enforcing agencies : the Armed Forces ( CSKA ) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs ( Dinamo ). There were army and police teams in most major cities. As a consequence, Spartak, CSKA, and Dinamo were among the best-funded teams in the USSR. The Rhythmic Gymnastics Palace after Irina Vilner-Usmanova is located in the Luzniki Olympic Complex. The build up works started in 2017 and the afford ceremony took place on June 18, 2019. The investor of the Palace is the billionaire Alisher Usmanov, husband of the former gymnast and gymnastics coach Irina Viner-Usmanova. The full surface of the building is 23,500 m2, which include 3 fitness rooms, footlocker rooms, rooms reserved to referees and coaches, saunas, a canteen, a cafeteria, 2 ball halls, a Medical center, a hall reserved to journalists and a hotel for athletes. [ 134 ] Because of Moscow ‘s cold local anesthetic climate, winter sports have a adopt. many of Moscow ‘s large parks offer marked trails for skiing and frozen ponds for skating.
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Moscow hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a democratic tennis tournament on both the WTA and ATP tours. It is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women ‘s go and a horde of russian players feature every class. SC Olimpiyskiy hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, the first and so far the entirely Eurovision Song Contest arranged in Russia. Slava Moscow is a professional rugby clubhouse, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Former rugby league heavyweights RC Lokomotiv have entered the same league as of 2011. The Luzhniki Stadium besides hosted the 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens. In bandy, one of the most successful clubs in the populace is 20 times russian League champions Dynamo Moscow. They have besides won the World Cup thrice and european Cup six times. MFK Dinamo Moskva is one of the major futsal clubs in Europe, having won the Futsal Champions League title once. When Russia was selected to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the Luzhniki Stadium got an increased capacity, by about 10,000 new seats, in addition to a far two stadiums that have been built : the Dynamo Stadium, and the Spartak Stadium, although the first base one later was dismissed from having World Cup matches .
entertainment [edit ]
The city is full of clubs, restaurants, and bars. Tverskaya Street is besides one of the busiest shop streets in Moscow. The adjoining Tretyakovsky Proyezd, besides confederacy of Tverskaya Street, in Kitai-gorod, is host to upmarket boutique stores such as Bulgari, Tiffany & Co., Armani, Prada and Bentley. [ 135 ] Nightlife in Moscow has moved on since soviet times and nowadays the city has many of the populace ‘s largest cabaret. Clubs, bars, creative spaces and restaurants-turned-into-dancefloors are flooding Moscow streets with new openings every year. The hottest area is located around the honest-to-god cocoa factory, where bars, nightclubs, galleries, cafés and restaurants are placed. [ 136 ] Dream Island is an amusement park in Moscow that opened on February 29, 2020. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] It is the largest indoor theme parking lot in Europe. The park covers 300,000 hearty meters. During the park ‘s construction, 150 acres of nature trees unique and rare animals and birds and plants on the peninsula were destroyed. The appearance is in the style of a fairytale palace similar to Disneyland. The park has 29 singular attractions with many rides, angstrom well as pedestrian malls with fountains and cycle paths. The complex includes a landscape park along with a concert hall, a cinema, a hotel, a children ‘s sailing school, restaurants, and shops .
Authorities [edit ]
Moscow authorities [edit ]
According to the Constitution of the russian Federation, Moscow is an independent federal subject of the russian Federation, the alleged city of federal importance. The Mayor of Moscow is the leading official in the executive, leading the Government of Moscow, which is the highest electric organ of executive power. The Moscow City Duma is the City Duma ( city council or local parliament ) and local laws must be approved by it. It includes 45 members who are elected for a five-year term on Single-mandate constituency basis. From 2006 to 2012, direct elections of the mayor were not held due to changes in the Charter of the city of Moscow, the mayor was appointed by presidential decree. The beginning address elections from the time of the 2003 vote were to be held after the passing of the stream mayor in 2015, however, in connection with his resignation of his own detached will, they took put in September 2013. local administration is carried out through eleven prefectures, uniting the districts of Moscow into administrative districts on a territorial basis, and 125 regional administrations. According to the law “ On the organization of local self-government in the city of Moscow ”, since the begin of 2003, the executive bodies of local self-government are municipalities, representative bodies are municipal assemblies, whose members are elected in accordance with the Charter of the intracity municipality .
Federal authorities [edit ]
In Moscow, as in a city endowed with the Constitution of the russian Federation, the legislative, executive, and judicial federal authorities of the country are located, with the exception of the Constitutional Court of the russian Federation, which has been located in Saint Petersburg since 2008. The sovereign executive authority – the Government of the russian Federation – is located in the House of the Government of the russian Federation on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment in the center of Moscow. The State Duma sits on Okhotny Ryad. The Federation Council is located in a building on Bolshaya Dmitrovka. The Supreme Court of the russian Federation and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the russian Federation are besides located in Moscow. In summation, the Moscow Kremlin is the official residence of the President of the russian Federation. The president of the united states ‘s working residence in the Kremlin is located in the Senate Palace .
safety [edit ]
According to the rank of the safest cities made by The Economist Moscow occupies the thirty-seventh situation with a mark of 68,5 points percentage. [ 139 ] The general level of crime is quite low. [ 140 ] More than 170,000 surveillance cameras in Moscow are connected to the facial recognition arrangement. The authorities recognized the successful two-month experiment with automatic rifle recognition of faces, sex, and senesce of people in real-time – and then they deployed the arrangement to the solid city. The network of video surveillance unites access video recording cameras ( 95 % of residential apartment buildings in the capital ), cameras in the territory and in buildings of schools and kindergartens, at the MCC stations, stadiums, populace enchant stops, and bus stations, in parks, belowground passages. [ 141 ] The emergency numbers are the lapp as in all the early regions of Russia : 112 is the Single Emergency Number, 101 is the number of the Fire Service and Ministry of Emergency Situations, 102 is the Police one, 103 is the ambulance one, 104 is the Emergency Gas number. [ 142 ] Moscow ‘s EMS is the second most effective one among the universe ‘s megacities, as reported by PwC during the presentation of the external study Analysis of EMS Efficiency in Megacities of the World. [ 143 ]
administrative divisions [edit ]
|Federal city of Moscow|
|City administrative divisions||12|
territorial change of Moscow from 1922 to 1995
The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor ( Sergey Sobyanin ). The city of Moscow is divided into twelve administrative okrugs and 125 districts. The russian capital ‘s town-planning development began to show ampere early on as the twelfth hundred when the city was founded. The central part of Moscow grew by consolidating with suburbs in credit line with medieval principles of urban development when potent fortress walls would gradually spread along the circle streets of adjacent newfangled settlements. The beginning round refutation walls set the trajectory of Moscow ‘s rings, laying the basis for the future planning of the russian capital. The follow fortifications served as the city ‘s circular defense boundaries at some point in history : the Kremlin walls, Zemlyanoy Gorod ( Earthwork Town ), the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, and the minor railroad track ring. The Moscow Ring Road ( MKAD ) has been Moscow ‘s boundary since 1960. besides in the form of a circle are the independent Moscow metro line, the Ring Line, and the alleged Third Automobile Ring, which was completed in 2005. Hence, the feature radial-circle planning continues to define Moscow ‘s promote development. however, contemporaneous Moscow has besides engulfed a number of territories outside the MKAD, such as Solntsevo, Butovo, and the town of Zelenograd. A part of Moscow Oblast ‘s territory was merged into Moscow on July 1, 2012 ; as a leave, Moscow is no longer fully surrounded by Moscow Oblast and immediately besides has a margin with Kaluga Oblast. [ 144 ] In all, Moscow gained about 1,500 public square kilometers ( 580 sq michigan ) and 230,000 inhabitants. Moscow ‘s Mayor Sergey Sobyanin lauded the expansion that will help Moscow and the neighbor region, a “ mega-city ” of twenty million people, to develop “ harmonically. ” [ 59 ] All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms and flags arsenic well as individual heads of the sphere. In summation to the districts, there are territorial Units with special Status. These normally include areas with small or no permanent populations. such is the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, the Botanical Garden, large parks, and industrial zones. In holocene years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some north american and east asian cities. And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city plaza, metro stations or green zones are considered more esteemed. [ 145 ] Moscow besides hosts some of the politics bodies of Moscow Oblast, although the city itself is not a part of the oblast. [ 146 ]
economy [edit ]
overview [edit ]
Moscow has one of the largest municipal economies in Europe and it accounts more than one-fifth of Russia ‘s crying domestic product ( GDP ). [ 148 ] As of 2017, the nominal GRP in Moscow reached ₽15.7 trillion [ 149 ] [ 150 ] $ 270 billion ( ~ $ 0.7 trillion in Purchasing Power [ 151 ] ), [ 152 ] US $ 22,000 per head ( ~ $ 60,000 per caput in Purchasing Power [ 151 ] [ 153 ] )
Moscow has the lowest unemployment rate of all federal subjects of Russia, standing at just 1 % in 2010, compared to the national average of 7 %. The average megascopic monthly engage in the city is ₽60,000 [ 154 ] ( US $ 2,500 in Purchasing Power [ 155 ] ), which is about twice the home average of ₽34,000 [ 156 ] ( US $ 1,400 in Purchasing Power [ 155 ] ), and the highest among the federal subjects of Russia. Moscow is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the populace, [ 157 ] and has the highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe. It is the fiscal center of Russia and family to the nation ‘s largest banks and many of its largest companies, such as anoint colossus Rosneft. Moscow accounts for 17 % of retail sales in Russia and for 13 % of all structure activity in the nation. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] Since the 1998 russian fiscal crisis, business sectors in Moscow have shown exponential rates of growth. many raw commercial enterprise centers and office buildings have been built in late years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office outer space. As a result, many former industrial and inquiry facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office practice. Overall, economic stability has improved in late years ; however, crime and corruption distillery hinder clientele development .
industry [edit ]
basal industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, fabric, furniture, energy production, software growth and machinery industries. The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the global ‘s leading producers of military and civil helicopters. Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center produces respective space equipment, including modules for space stations Mir, Salyut and the ISS deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as Proton establish vehicles and military ICBMs. Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Tupolev and Yakovlev aircraft design agency besides situated in Moscow. NPO Energomash, producing the skyrocket engines for russian and american space programs, vitamin a well as Lavochkin design agency, which built combatant planes during WWII, but switched to outer space probes since the Space Race, are in nearby Khimki, an autonomous city in Moscow Oblast that have largely been enclosed by Moscow from its sides. automobile plants ZiL and AZLK, equally well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrovagonmash metro beach wagon plant is located just outside the city limits. The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad. Yuri Gagarin in his slip into distance used “ Shturmanskie ” produced by this factory. The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. The Kristall distillery [ 160 ] is the oldest distillery in Russia producing vodka types, including “ Stolichnaya “ while wines are produced at Moscow wine plants, including the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. [ 161 ] The Moscow Jewelry Factory [ 162 ] and the Jewellerprom [ 163 ] are producers of jewelry in Russia ; Jewellerprom used to produce the exclusive Order of Victory, awarded to those aiding the Soviet Union ‘s Red Army during World War II. There are other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, ampere well as microelectronic industries in Zelenograd, including Ruselectronics companies. Gazprom, the largest centrifuge of natural gas in the universe and the largest russian company, has capitulum offices besides in Moscow, ampere well as other vegetable oil, gas, and electricity companies. Moscow hosts headquarters of the many of telecommunication and engineering companies, including 1C, ABBYY, Beeline, Kaspersky Lab, Mail.Ru Group, MegaFon, MTS, Rambler & Co, Rostelecom, Yandex, and Yota. Some industry is being transferred out of the city to improve the ecological state of the city .
cost of exist [edit ]
During soviet times, apartments were lend to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person average ( some groups, including people ‘s artists, heroes, and big scientists had bonuses according to their honors ). private possession of apartments was limited until the 1990s when people were permitted to secure property rights to their populate places. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service cathexis for their residences, a repair sum based on persons per live area. The price of real estate of the realm in Moscow continues to rise. nowadays, one could expect to pay $ 4,000 on average per square meter ( 11 sq foot ) on the outskirts of the city [ 164 ] or US $ 6,500– $ 8,000 per squarely meter in a esteemed district. The price sometimes may exceed US $ 40,000 per square meter in a flat. [ 165 ] [ 166 ] [ 167 ] It costs about US $ 1,200 per calendar month to rent a one-bedroom apartment and about US $ 1,000 per month for a studio in the center of Moscow. A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres ( 320 square feet ), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five public square metres ( 480 square feet ), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres ( 750 square feet ). many can not move out of their apartments, specially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the monetary value of living by renting their apartments while staying in dacha ( country houses ) outside the city. In 2006, Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world ‘s most expensive city for exile employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable russian ruble adenine well as increasing house prices within the city. [ 168 ] Moscow besides ranked first in the 2007 edition and 2008 edition of the survey. however, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third behind Osaka in second place. [ 169 ] In 2008, Moscow ranked clear on the list of most expensive cities for the third base year in a quarrel. [ 170 ] In 2014, according to Forbes, Moscow was ranked the 9th most expensive city in the world. Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the class anterior. [ 171 ] In 2019 the Economist Intelligence Unit ‘s Worldwide Cost of Living review put Moscow to 102nd place in the semiannual ranking of 133 most expensive cities. [ 172 ] ECA International ‘s monetary value of Living 2019 Survey ranked Moscow # 120 among 482 locations cosmopolitan. [ 173 ]
Public utilities [edit ]
Heating [edit ]
The heating system of buildings in Moscow, like in other cities in Russia is done using cardinal heat system. Before 2004, state unitary enterprises were creditworthy to produce and supply heat to the clients by the operation of heating stations and heating distribution organization of Mosgorteplo, Mosteploenergo, and Teploremontnaladka which gave service to the inflame substations in the north-eastern part of the city. Clients were divided between the respective enterprises based on their geographic placement. A major reform launched in 2004 consolidated the respective companies under the umbrella of MIPC which became the municipal heat supplier. Its subsidiaries were the newly transformed Joint-stock companies. The city ‘s main source of heat is the baron station of Mosenergo which was reformed in 2005, when around ten subsidiaries were separated from it. One of the newly freelancer companies was the District Heating Network Company ( MTK ) ( russian : Московская теплосетевая компания ). In 2007 the Government of Moscow bought controlling stakes in the company. [ 174 ]
City services [edit ]
“ Our city ” is a geo-information portal vein created in 2011 under the mayor of Moscow Sergei Sobyanin with the bearing of building a constructive dialogue between Moscow residents and the city ‘s executive authorities. The portal is being developed by the State Public Institution “ New Management Technologies ” together with the Moscow Department of Information Technologies. In its 10 years of operation, more than 1.7 million users have joined the portal site, and during this time it has become an effective creature for monitoring the department of state of urban infrastructure. [ 175 ]
education [edit ]
There are 1,696 high schools in Moscow, adenine well as 91 colleges. [ 107 ] Besides these, there are 222 institutions of higher department of education, including 60 state universities [ 107 ] and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755. [ 176 ] The main university building located in Vorobyovy Gory ( Sparrow Hills ) is 240 metres ( 790 foot ) grandiloquent and when completed, was the tallest construct on the continent. [ 177 ] The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for analyze. additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to become fluent in the russian language. [ 178 ] The I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University named after Ivan Sechenov or once known as Moscow Medical Academy ( 1stMSMU ) is a medical university situated in Moscow, Russia. It was founded in 1785 as the staff of the Moscow State University. It is a russian Federal Agency for Health and Social Development. It is one of the largest checkup universities in Russia and Europe. More than 9200 students are enrolled in 115 academic departments. It offers courses for post-graduate studies .
The Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University ( once known as russian State Medical University ) is a medical higher education initiation in Moscow, Russia founded in 1906. It is in full accredited and recognized by Russia ‘s Ministry of Education and Science and is presently under the authority of the Ministry of Health and Social Development. Named after russian surgeon and educator N.I. Pirogov ( 1810-1888 ), it is one of the largest aesculapian institutions and the first gear university in Russia to allow women to acquire degrees. Moscow is one of the fiscal centers of the russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools. Among them are the Financial University under the Government of the russian Federation ; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics ; The State University of Management, and the National Research University – Higher School of Economics. They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, account, commercialize, real estate of the realm, and economic theory, a well as Masters programs and MBAs. Most of them have branches in early regions of Russia and countries around the world .
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in 1830, is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 graduate student students with an education in skill and mastermind, offering technical degrees. [ 179 ]
The Moscow Conservatory, [ 180 ] founded in 1866, is a outstanding music school in Russia whose graduates include Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke .
The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the populace ‘s oldest educational mental hospital in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Andrei Tarkovsky, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Alexander Sokurov, Yuriy Norshteyn, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolf among graduates. Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia ‘s best- know school of international relations and statesmanship, with six schools focused on international relations. approximately 4,500 students make up the university ‘s student torso and over 700,000 russian and foreign-language books—of which 20,000 are considered rare—can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. [ 181 ] early institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, besides known as Phystech, the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, founded in 1988 by russian center surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov, the Moscow Aviation Institute, the Moscow Motorway Institute ( State Technical University ), and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Nobel Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau and Alexander Prokhorov, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics. [ 182 ] The highest russian military educate is the compound Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the russian Federation. Although Moscow has a act of celebrated Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards technology or the fundamental sciences, in holocene years Moscow has seen a emergence in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in clientele and management. many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Institutions in Moscow, american samoa well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and graduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with numerous countries, particularly with the rest of Europe, have besides become far-flung in Moscow ‘s universities, while schools within the russian capital besides offer seminars, lectures, and courses for bodied employees and businessmen .
Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. The headquarters of the russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow a well as research and applied science institutions. The Kurchatov Institute, Russia ‘s run research and development initiation in the fields of nuclear energy, where the inaugural nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow. There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children. [ 107 ] The russian State Library, [ 183 ] founded in 1862, is the national library of Russia. The library is home to over 275 km ( 171 mi ) of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and series volumes, 13 million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 languages account for 29 % of the collection. [ 184 ] [ 185 ] The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library specialize in russian history. Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages ( including 47 languages of the former USSR ), largely on Russian and worldly concern history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of skill. [ 186 ] In regard to chief and secondary coil education, in 2011, Clifford J. Levy of The New York Times wrote, “ Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a unharmed is dispiriting, in separate because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet lay waste to. Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. There are extra payoffs for good grades. ” [ 187 ]
fare [edit ]
Metro [edit ]
The Moscow Metro system is celebrated for its art, murals, mosaics, and flowery chandeliers. It started operation in 1935 and immediately became the centerpiece of the department of transportation system. More than that it was a stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of soviet realist art. It became the prototype for future soviet large-scale technologies. Lazar Kaganovich was in charge ; he designed the metro so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist refinement as they rode. The artwork of the 13 master stations became nationally and internationally celebrated. For exemplar, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical art of the herculean newfangled “ Homo Sovieticus ” ( Soviet man ). [ 188 ] The metro was touted as the symbol of the raw social order—a sort of Communist cathedral of engineer modernity. [ 189 ] soviet workers did the labor and the artwork, but the independent engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground. The Britons called for tunneling rather of the “ cut-and-cover ” proficiency, the use of escalators alternatively of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling lineage. [ 190 ] The paranoia of Stalin and the NKVD was discernible when the secret police arrested numerous british engineers for espionage—that is for gaining an in-depth cognition of the city ‘s physical layout. Engineers for the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company were given a show trial and deported in 1933, ending the character of british business in the USSR. [ 191 ] today, the Moscow Metro comprises twelve lines, largely belowground with a total of 203 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest underpass systems in the earth ; for exemplify, the Park Pobedy station, completed in 2003, at 84 metres ( 276 foot ) underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is the busiest metro system in Europe, angstrom well as one of the worldly concern ‘s busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily ( 300,000,000 people every calendar month ). [ 192 ] Facing good transportation problems, Moscow has plans for expanding its Metro. In 2016, the authorities launched a new traffic circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues, namely daily congestion at Koltsevaya Line. [ 193 ] ascribable to the treatment of Metro stations as possible poll for art, characterized by the fact that workers of Moscow would get to see them every day, many Stalin-era metro stations were built in different “ custom ” designs ( where each station ‘s design would be, initially, a massive initiation on a certain theme. For example, Elektrozavodskaya station was themed entirely after nearby light bulb factory and ceramic costate light bulb sockets ) ; [ 194 ] the custom of “ Grand Designs ” and, basically, decorating metro stations as single-themed installations, was restored in deep 1979. More recently, Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin has introduced comforts ranging from WiFi and USB ports and Apple Pay — while opening new stations at a breakneck yard. Moscow ‘s metro is one of the universe ‘s busiest, handling 2.6 billion passengers in 2019. [ 195 ] In the russian capital, there are over 21.5 thousand Wi-Fi access points, in student dormitories, in parks, cultural and sports institutions, and within the Garden Ring and the Third Transport Ring. From September 2020 to August 2021, 1,700 new access points to urban Wi-Fi were launched in Moscow. [ 196 ] The structure of the Wi-Fi network allows citizens to use the Internet without re-authorization. [ 197 ]
monorail [edit ]
Two trains of the Moscow Monorail arriving at a monorail station The Moscow Metro operates a abruptly monorail line. The line connects Timiryazevskaya metro station and Ulitsa Sergeya Eisensteina, passing conclusion to VDNH. The line opened in 2004. No extra fare is needed ( first metro monorail transfer in 90 minutes does not charge ) .
Bus, trolleybus and electric bus [edit ]
As Metro stations outside the city center are far aside in comparison to early cities, up to 4 kilometres ( 2.5 secret intelligence service ), a bus net radiates from each post to the surrounding residential zones. Moscow has a bus topology terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses ( Central Bus Terminal ) with a day by day dollar volume of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40 % of long-range bus routes in Moscow. [ 199 ] Every major street in the city is served by at least one bus road. many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them. With the full line length of about 600 kilometres ( 370 miles ) of a single wire, 8 depots, 104 routes, and 1740 vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus arrangement was the largest in the world. But municipal authority, headed by Sergey Sobyanin, began to destroy the trolleybus system in Moscow in 2014 ascribable to corruption and plan surrogate of trolleybuses by electric buses. In 2018 Moscow trolleybus system has only 4 depots and dozens of kilometers of unused wires. Almost all trolleybus wires inside Garden Ring ( Sadovoe Koltso ) were cut in 2016–2017 due to the reconstruction of central streets ( “ Moya Ulitsa ” ). Opened on November 15, 1933, it is besides the universe ‘s 6th oldest engage trolleybus system. In 2018 the fomite companies Kamaz and GAZ have won the Mosgortrans affectionate for delivering 200 electric buses and 62 ultra-fast charging stations to the city ecstasy arrangement. The manufacturers will be responsible for the quality and reliable operation of the buses and charging stations for the adjacent 15 years. The city will be procuring only electric buses as of 2021, replacing the diesel bus topology fleet gradually. According to expectations, Moscow will become the drawing card amongst the european cities in terms of electric and boast fuel plowshare in public conveyance by 2019. [ 200 ] All bus stations and terminals of Moscow are now connected to dislodge Wi-Fi. One may use it in external bus stations Salaryevo, South Gate and North Gate, and in bus terminals Varshavskaya and Orekhovo. angstrom a lot as 48 hot spots were installed there. [ 201 ]
Moscow cable car [edit ]
On November 26, 2018, the mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin took separate in the ceremony to open the cable cable car above the Moskva River. The cable car will connect the Luzhniki sports complex with Sparrow Hills and Kosygin Street. The journey from the well-known vantage point on Vorobyovy Gory to Luzhniki Stadium will end for five minutes rather of 20 minutes that one would have to spend on the same journey by cable car. The cable car will work every day from 11 ante meridiem till 11 p.m. The cable television car is 720 meters long. It was built to transport 1,600 passengers per hour in all weathers. There are 35 conclude capsules designed by Porsche Design Studio to transport passengers. The booths are equipped with media screens, LED lights, hooks for bikes, ski, and snowboards. Passengers will besides be able to use audio guides in English, German, Chinese and Russian .
tramway [edit ]
Tram map of Moscow Moscow has an extensive tramcar system, which first opened in 1899. [ 202 ] The newest credit line was built in 1984. Its daily use by Muscovites is depleted, making up for approximately 5 % of trips because many full of life connections in the network have been withdrawn. Trams still remain significant in some districts as feeders to Metro stations. The tramway besides provide crucial cross-links between metro lines, for example between Universitet post of Sokolnicheskaya Line ( # 1 red line ) and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line ( # 6 orange tune ) or between Voykovskaya and Strogino. There are three tramway networks in the city :
- Krasnopresnenskoye depot network with the westernmost point at Strogino (depot location) and the easternmost point near platform Dmitrovskaya. This network became separated in 1973, but until 1997 it could easily have been reconnected by about one kilometre (fifty chains) of track and three switches. The network has the highest usage in Moscow and no weak points based on turnover except to-depot lane (passengers serviced by bus) and tram ring at Dmitrovskaya (because now it is neither a normal transfer point nor a repair terminal).
- The Apakov depot services the south-western part from the Varshavsky lane – Simferopolsky boulevard in the east to the Universitet station in the west and Boulevard lane at the center. This network is connected only by the four-way Dubininskaya and Kozhevnicheskaya streets. A second connection by Vostochnaya (Eastern) street was withdrawn in 1987 due to a fire at the Dinamo plant and has not been recovered, and remains lost (Avtozavodsky bridge) at 1992. The network may be serviced anyway by another depot (now route 35, 38).
- Main three depot networks with railway gate and tram-repair plant.
In accession, streetcar advocates have suggested that the new rapid transportation system services ( metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail ) would be more effective as at-grade tramway lines and that the problems with trams are merely ascribable to hapless management and process, not the technical foul properties of trams. New tramway models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion .
cab [edit ]
commercial cab services and route taxis are in far-flung consumption. In the mid-2010s, serve platforms such as Yandex.Taxi, Uber and Gett displaced many private drivers and small service providers and were in 2015 servicing more than 50 % of all taxi orders in Moscow. [ 203 ] [ 204 ] russian technical school firm Yandex is testing self-driving taxis in Moscow. Yandex ‘s fleet of around 170 driverless cars has travelled more than 14 million kilometres. Robotaxis will available through the company ‘s Yandex.Go application in Yasenevo zone. [ 205 ]
railroad track [edit ]
respective train stations serve the city. Moscow ‘s ten fulminate terminals ( or vokzals ) are :
The terminals are located finale to the city center, along with the metro ringline 5 or conclusion to it, and connect to a metro line to the center of town. Each post handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. [ 206 ] There are many smaller railroad track stations in Moscow. As train tickets are brassy, they are the choose mode of travel for Russians, specially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia ‘s second-largest city. Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses about 9,300 kilometres ( 5,800 secret intelligence service ) of russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka ( electric fulminate ) net. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby ( up to 140 km or 87 security service ) large railway stations. During the 2010s, the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service ; it is in full integrated with Moscow Metro ; the passenger service started on September 10, 2016. A connecting railway tune on the North side of the town connects Belorussky terminal with other railroad track lines. This is used by some suburban trains .
Moscow Central Circle [edit ]
A 81-765 Moscow educate on Shelepikha The Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga formed a closed chain around the now-downtown Moscow since 1903, but only served as a non-electrified, fueled locomotive-only railway anterior to reconstruction into MCC in 2010 ‘s. The Moscow Central Circle is a 54-kilometre-long ( 34 nautical mile ) urban-metro railway orbital line that encircles historical Moscow. It was built aboard little Ring of the Moscow Railway, taking some of its tracks into itself adenine well. M.C.C. was opened for passenger use on September 10, 2016. MOZD is integrated as “ Line 14 of Moscow Metro ”, and, while using railway-sized trains, can be perceived as “ S-train-design traffic circle line ”. The note is operated by the Moscow Government owned company MKZD through the Moscow Metro, with the Federal Government owned Russian Railways selected as the mathematical process subcontractor. The track infrastructure and most platforms are owned by russian Railways, while MKZD owns most place buildings. however, in S-bahn way, Moscow unified tickets “ Ediniiy ” and “ Troika ” are accepted by MCC stations. There is one zero-fee interchange for any ticket used on Moscow Metro station less than 90 minutes before entering an MCC place ( and vice versa : a passenger of MCC gets 1 detached interchange to Moscow Metro within 90 minutes after entering MCC station )
Moscow Central Diameters [edit ]
Another system, which forms “ genuine S-Bahn “ as in “ suburbia-city-suburbia ” -designed railroad track, is the Moscow Central Diameters, a pass-through railroad track system, created by constructing bypasses from “ vokzals ” concluding stations ( e.g. by avoiding the cardinal stations of already existing Moscow Railway, used for both intercity and urban-suburban travel before ) [ 207 ] and forming a train line across Moscow ‘s center. Out of 5 stick out lines, the beginning 2 lines were completed and launched on 2019-11-21 ( e.g. November 21, 2019 ). While using the same rails as “ regular ” suburban trains to vokzals, MCD trains ( “ Ivolga “ model ) got distinguishing features ( shape ; bolshevik cabin, different windows, lesser amount of seats ; boastfully crimson “ MЦΔ ” train logo ) .
Roads [edit ]
There are over 2.6 million cars in the city casual. late years have seen emergence in the issue of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems. The Moscow Ring Road ( MKAD ), along with the Third Transport Ring and the canceled Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits. respective other roadway systems form concentric circles around the city .
Air [edit ]
There are five basal commercial airports serving Moscow : Sheremetyevo ( SVO ), Domodedovo ( DME ), Vnukovo ( VKO ), Zhukovsky ( ZIA ), Ostafyevo ( OSF ) .
Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most globally connected, handling 60 % of all international flights. [ 208 ] It is besides a home to all SkyTeam members, and the main hub for Aeroflot ( itself a penis of SkyTeam ). Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its external traffic rivals Sheremetyevo. It is a hub for S7 airlines, and most of OneWorld and Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their external hub. Vnukovo International Airport handles flights of Turkish Airlines, Wizz Air and others. Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to commercial enterprise aviation. Moscow ‘s airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway : Domodedovo is the furthest at 22 kilometer ( 14 michigan ) ; Vnukovo is 11 kilometer ( 7 mile ) ; Sheremetyevo is 10 kilometer ( 6 nautical mile ) ; and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres ( 5.0 nautical mile ) from MKAD. [ 208 ] There are a total of smaller airports close to Moscow ( 19 in Moscow Oblast ) such as Myachkovo Airport, that are intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters. [ 209 ]
water [edit ]
Moscow has two passenger terminals, ( South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal ), on the river and regular embark routes and cruises along the Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used largely for entertainment. The North River Terminal, built in 1937, is the chief hub for long-range river routes. There are three freight ports serving Moscow .
Sharing arrangement [edit ]
Moscow has unlike vehicle sharing options that are sponsored by the local government. There are several car sharing companies which are in charge of providing cars to the population. To drive the automobiles, the drug user has to book them through the app of the owning company. In 2018 the mayor Sergey Sobyanin said Moscow ‘s cable car share system has become the biggest in Europe in terms of vehicle fleet. [ 211 ] Every day about 25,000 people use this military service. In the conclusion of the lapp year Moscow carsharing became the second in the worldly concern in therms of evanesce with 16.5K available vehicles. [ 212 ] Another sharing system is bike sharing ( Velobike ) of a fleet formed by 3000 traditional and electric bicycles. [ 213 ] The Delisamokat is a new share service that provides electrical scooters. [ 214 ] There are companies that provide different vehicles to the population in proximity to Moscow ‘s big parks .
future development [edit ]
In 1992, the Moscow government began planning a projected new part of central Moscow, the Moscow International Business Center, with the goal of creating a zone, the first gear in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe, [ 217 ] that will combine occupation activity, living space and entertainment. Situated in Presnensky District and located at the Third Ring, the Moscow City area is under intense development. The construction of the MIBC takes target on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up to one square kilometer ( 250 acres ). The area is the entirely spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a stick out of this order of magnitude. today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes. The Federation Tower, completed in 2016, is the second-tallest build in Europe. It is planned to include a urine park and other amateur facilities ; business, office, entertainment, and residential buildings, a transport network and a newfangled site for the Moscow politics. The construction of four newfangled metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some extra stations were planned .
- A rail shuttle service, directly connecting MIBC with the Sheremetyevo International Airport is also planned.
major thoroughfares through MIBC are the Third Ring and Kutuzovsky Prospekt. Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line. The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in 2005 and was late renamed Vystavochnaya in 2009. The outgrowth extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya post in 2006, and all influence on the third station, Dorogomilovskaya ( between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr ), has been postponed. There are plans to extend the outgrowth angstrom far as the Savyolovskaya post, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. It should be noted this trace 4 of Moscow Metro had the longest fourth dimension intervals between train arrivals ( approximately 8 minutes for Mezhdunarodnaya and Vystavochnaya branch of credit line 4 ) throughout the 2010s. however, Vystavochnaya has been expanded with Line 8A platforms ( segment of future Line 11 ), and Mezhdunarodnaya has been upgraded with telephone line 14 platform. The cellular telephone service provider MTS announced on 5 March 2021 that they would begin the country ‘s first original 5G network in Moscow. 14 hotspots were positioned across the city ‘s chief tourist attractions, including Lubyanka Square near Red Square, the Moscow City fiscal zone and the VDNKh exhibition center. [ 218 ]
Media [edit ]
Moscow is home to closely all of Russia ‘s countrywide television networks, radio stations, newspapers, and magazines .
Newspapers [edit ]
English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News, which are, respectively, the largest [ 219 ] and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. Kommersant, Vedomosti and Novaya Gazeta are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. Kommersant and Vedomosti are among the country ‘s lead and oldest Russian-language business newspapers .
television receiver and radio [edit ]
early media in Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first soviet and russian private news program radio receiver and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned russian television stations. The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM ring is near 50. Moscow television networks:
Moscow radio stations:
noteworthy people [edit ]
International relations [edit ]
Twin towns – sister cities [edit ]
Moscow is twinned with :
cooperation agreements [edit ]
Moscow has cooperation agreements with :
Former counterpart towns and sister cities [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
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