Federal district and the capital city of Malaysia

Federal district and capital city in Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur ( malaysian pronunciation : [ ˈkualə, -a ˈlumpo ( roentgen ), -ʊ ( r ) ] ), formally the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur ( Malay : Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur ) and colloquially referred to as KL, is a federal territory and the capital city of Malaysia. It is the largest city in Malaysia, covering an area of 243 km2 ( 94 sq secret intelligence service ) with an calculate population of 1.73 million as of 2016. [ 9 ] Greater Kuala Lumpur, besides known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.564 million people as of 2018. [ 5 ] It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, both in population and economic exploitation.

The city serves as the cultural, fiscal, and economic center of Malaysia. It is besides home to the Parliament of Malaysia, and the Istana Negara, the official residency of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ( monarch of Malaysia ). Kuala Lumpur foremost developed about 1857 as a town serving the tin mines of the region and served as the capital of Selangor from 1880 until 1978. Kuala Lumpur was the establish capital of the Federation of Malaya and its successor Malaysia, and the city remained the seat of the administrator and judicial branches of the Malaysian federal government until these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. [ 10 ] however, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three federal territories of Malaysia, [ 11 ] enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. [ 12 ] Since the 1990s, the city has played master of ceremonies to many international dissipated, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in late decades and is home to the tallest match buildings in the populace, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. It has a comprehensive road organization supported by an across-the-board range of public transport networks, such as multitude rapid transportation system ( MRT ), ignite rapid transit ( LRT ), monorail, commuter fulminate, populace buses, hop on & hop off buses ( free of agitate ) and airport rail links. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the earth for tourism and shop, the 6th most-visited city in the global in 2019. [ 13 ] The city houses three of the global ‘s ten-spot largest shopping malls. [ 14 ] Kuala Lumpur ranks 70th in the world and second gear in Southeast Asia for Economist Intelligence Unit ‘s Global Liveability Ranking [ 15 ] and ninth in ASPAC and second in Southeast Asia for KPMG ‘s Leading Technology Innovation Hub 2021. [ 16 ] Kuala Lumpur was named World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. [ 17 ] [ 18 ]

etymology [edit ]

Jamek Mosque at the confluence of the Gombak (left) and Klang (right) rivers. The earliest settlement of Kuala Lumpur developed on the eastern side of the river bank (to the right in this picture). Kuala Lumpur means “ dirty confluence ” in Malay ; Kuala is the target where two rivers join together or an estuary, and lumpur means “ mire ”. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur ( “ muddy river ” ) ; in the 1820s Sungai Lumpur was the most important tin-producing settlement up the Klang River. however this deriving does not account for this : Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, and therefore should be named Kuala Gombak, since ‘ ’ kuala ’ ’ means the point where one river joins a larger one, or the ocean. Some have argued that Sungai Lumpur in fact extended polish to the confluence and therefore the item where it joined the Klang River would be Kuala Lumpur, [ 23 ] although this Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River 1.5 kilometres ( 1 mile ) upstream from the Gombak confluence, or possibly located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has besides been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was primitively named Pengkalan Lumpur ( “ muddy down target ” ) in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu ( “ stone landing position ” ), but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. [ 23 ] Another hypothesis says that it was initially a yue word, lam-pa, meaning ‘flooded jungle ‘ or ‘decayed jungle ‘. There is no tauten contemporary testify for these suggestions other than anecdotes. [ 24 ] The name may besides be a corrupted mannequin of an earlier forget name .

history [edit ]

early years [edit ]

cipher specifically knows who founded or named Kuala Lumpur. chinese miners were involved in tin mine up the Selangor River in the 1840s about 16 kilometres ( 10 miles ) north of contemporary Kuala Lumpur, and Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal [ thousand ] and Sutan Puasa were besides involved in can mining and craft in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, and Sumatrans may have settled in the upper berth reaches of Klang River in the inaugural quarter of the nineteenth century, or possibly earlier. [ 23 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Kuala Lumpur was originally a small village of precisely a few houses and shops at the confluence of the Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang ( Klang River ). Kuala Lumpur became established as a town circa 1857, [ 29 ] when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his buddy Raja Juma’at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire chinese miners from Lukut to open newfangled tin mines there. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued on foot to Ampang, where they opened the first gear mine. [ 32 ] Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could handily be brought by boat, and consequently became a collection and dispersion point serving the tin mines. [ 29 ]
Yap Ah Loy Kapitan Yap Ah Loy, the third base chinese Kapitan of Kuala LumpurFrank SwettenhamFrank Swettenham,
credited with Kuala Lumpur’s rapid growth and development credited with Kuala Lumpur ‘s rapid growth and development Despite a high death toll from the malarial conditions of the hobo camp, the Ampang mines succeeded, and exported the first base can in 1859. At that time, Sutan Puasa was already trading near Ampang. Two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze, arrived in Kuala Lumpur and set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] The town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop around Old Market Square ( Medan Pasar ), with roads radiating out towards Ampang ampere well as Pudu and Batu ( the destinations became the names of these roads ), where miners had besides begun to settle in, and Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs [ 37 ] and the gangs frequently fought in this period, particularly factions of Kuala Lumpur and Kanching, chiefly over restraint of the best tin mines. [ 38 ] Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the entitle of Kapitan Cina ( Chinese headsman ) by the Malay head, and Hiu Siew, the early taiwanese trader, became the first Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur. [ 39 ] The third base taiwanese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, was appointed in 1868. [ 28 ] authoritative Malay figures of early Kuala Lumpur besides included Haji Mohamed Tahir, who became the Dato Dagang ( “ headman of traders ” ). [ 26 ] The Minangkabaus of Sumatra became another authoritative group who traded and established tobacco plantations in the sphere. luminary Minangkabaus included their headman, Dato ‘ Sati, Utsman Abdullah, [ 41 ] and Haji Mohamed Taib, who was involved in the early exploitation of Kampung Baru. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] The Minangkabaus were besides meaning socio-religious figures, for exemplar Utsman bin Abdullah was the beginning kadi of Kuala Lumpur, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as Muhammad Nur bank identification number Ismail. [ 44 ]

Beginning of modern Kuala Lumpur [edit ]

c. 1884. To the left is the part of a bird’s-eye horizon of Kuala Lumpur. To the left is the Padang. The buildings were constructed of wood and atap before regulations enacted by Swettenham in 1884 command buildings to use bricks and tiles. The appearance of Kuala Lumpur transformed quickly in the follow years ascribable to the construction regulations. early Kuala Lumpur was a belittled town that suffered from many social and political problems – the buildings were made of wood and ‘ ’ atap ’ ’, ( handle frond thatch ). The buildings were prone to catching on arouse, and due to a miss of proper sanitation the town was plagued with diseases. It besides suffered from a constant terror of flooding due to its location. The town became embroiled in the Selangor Civil War in separate over restraint of gross from the tin mines. Yap Ah Loy allied himself with Tengku Kudin [ megabyte ], and the rival Chinese gang allied themselves with Raja Mahdi. Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa besides switched sides to Raja Mahdi, and Kuala Lumpur was captured in 1872 and burnt to the grind. Yap escaped to Klang where he assembled another fighting power and recaptured Kuala Lumpur in March 1873, defeating Raja Mahdi ’ s forces with the aid of fighters from Pahang. [ 38 ] The war and other setbacks, such as dropping tin prices, led to a slump. A major outbreak of cholera caused many to flee. The slump lasted until late 1879, when rising prices for can allowed the town to recover. [ 29 ] In belated 1881, the town was badly flooded, after a fire that had destroyed the entire town in January. The town was rebuilt a few times and thrived, due in large character to the doggedness and doggedness of Yap Ah Loy. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Yap, in concert with Frank Swettenham who was appointed the Resident in 1882, were the two most authoritative figures of early Kuala Lumpur with Swettenham credited with its rapid emergence and growth and its transformation into a major urban centre. [ 47 ]
The early on chinese and Malay settled along the east bank of the Klang River. The taiwanese chiefly settled around the commercial center of Market Square. The Malays, and former indian Chettiars and Muslims, resided in the Java Street area, now Jalan Tun Perak. In 1880, the colonial administration moved the state das kapital of Selangor from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur, and british Resident William Bloomfield Douglas decided to locate the government buildings and living quarters to the west of the river. Government offices and a fresh police headquarters were built on Bukit Aman, and the Padang initially created for police prepare. [ 48 ] The Padang, immediately known as Merdeka Square, would later become the centre of the british administrative offices when the colonial government offices moved to the Sultan Abdul Samad Building in 1897. [ 46 ] Frank Swettenham, on becoming the british Resident, began improving the town by cleaning up the streets. He besides stipulated in 1884 that buildings should be constructed of brick and tile sol that they would be less flammable, and that the town be rebuilt with wider streets to reduce fire risk. [ 47 ] [ 49 ] Kapitan Yap Ah Loy bought a sprawling piece of real estate of the realm to set up a brick factory for the rebuild of Kuala Lumpur, the eponymous Brickfields. [ 50 ] Demolished atap buildings were replaced with brick and tile buildings, and many of the new brick buildings had “ five-foot ways “ and chinese carpentry shape. This resulted in a distinct eclectic denounce firm computer architecture typical to this region. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy expanded road access, linking tin mines with the city with the chief arterial routes of the confront Ampang Road, Pudu Road and Petaling Street. [ 51 ] As chinese Kapitan, he held wide powers on a par with Malay community leaders. law reforms were implemented and fresh legal measures introduced to the fabrication. Yap besides presided over a little claims court. With a patrol force of six, he was able to uphold the dominion of law, constructing a prison that could accommodate sixty prisoners at a time. Yap Ah Loy besides built Kuala Lumpur ‘s first school and a major tapioca mill in Petaling Street, in which the Selangor ‘s Sultan Abdul Samad held an matter to. [ 52 ]
A railway line between Kuala Lumpur and Klang, initiated by Swettenham and completed in 1886, increased access and resulted in rapid growth. The population grew from 4,500 in 1884 to 20,000 in 1890. [ 29 ] As development intensified in the 1880s, putting atmospheric pressure on sanitation, barren administration and early health measures. A Sanitary Board created on 14 May 1890 was creditworthy for sanitation, road sustenance, street light up, and other functions. This would finally become the Kuala Lumpur Municipal Council. [ 53 ] In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States. [ 54 ]

20th century–present [edit ]

c. 1915–1925. An arcade of shophouses with a road carpet sweeper at exercise in the street of Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur expanded well in the twentieth hundred. It was 0.65 km2 ( 0.25 sq security service ) in 1895, but was extended to encompass 20 km2 ( 7.7 sq secret intelligence service ) in 1903. By the time it became a municipality in 1948 it had expanded to 93 km2 ( 36 sq nautical mile ), and then to 243 km2 ( 94 sq mi ) in 1974 as a Federal Territory. [ 55 ] The development of a rubberize industry in Selangor fueled by the demand for car tyres in the early twentieth century led to a boom, and the population of Kuala Lumpur increased from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920. [ 56 ] The commercial activities of Kuala Lumpur had been run to a large extent by chinese businessmen such as Loke Yew, who was then the richest and most influential chinese in Kuala Lumpur. The emergence of the condom industry led to an inflow of foreign capital and planters, with new companies and industries becoming established in Kuala Lumpur, and other companies previously based elsewhere besides found a presence hera. [ 56 ]
During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Imperial japanese Army on 11 January 1942. Despite suffering little damage during the class of the struggle, the wartime occupation of the city resulted in significant loss of lives ; at least 5,000 taiwanese were killed in Kuala Lumpur in barely a few weeks of occupation by japanese forces, and thousands of Indians were sent as wedge labor to work on the Burma Railway where many died. [ 57 ] They occupied the city until 15 August 1945, when the air force officer in headman of the japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaysia, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the british administration following the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. [ 58 ] Kuala Lumpur grew during the war, and continued after the war during the Malayan Emergency ( 1948-1960 ), during which Malaya was preoccupied with a communist insurgency and New Villages were established on the outskirts of the city. [ 47 ] The first municipal election in Kuala Lumpur was held on 16 February 1952. An ad hoc confederation between the Malay UMNO and Chinese MCA party candidates won a majority of the seats, and this led to the formation of the Alliance Party ( late the Barisan Nasional ). [ 59 ] On 31 August 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from british principle. [ 60 ] The british flag was lowered and the Malayan ease up raised for the first time at the Padang at midnight on 30 August 1957, [ 61 ] and on the good morning of 31 August, the ceremony for the Declaration of Independence was held at the Merdeka Stadium by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman. Kuala Lumpur remained the capital after the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. The malaysian Houses of Parliament were completed at the border of the Lake Gardens in 1963. [ 62 ]
The Majestic Theatre on Pudu Road was an early pioneer in Kuala Lumpur ‘s film view. It was converted into an entertainment parking lot in the 1990s and demolished in 2009. Kuala Lumpur had seen a number of civil disturbances over the years. A orgy in 1897 was a relatively minor affair that began with the confiscation of defective dacing ( a scale used by traders ), and in 1912, a more serious disturbance called the tauchang riot began during the chinese New year with the dilute of pigtails and ended with rioting and factional contend lasting a act of days. [ 63 ] The worst rioting on record in Malaysia, however, occurred on 13 May 1969, when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur. [ 64 ] The alleged 13 May Incident included fierce conflicts between members of the Malay and the chinese communities, the leave of malaysian dissatisfaction with their socio-political status. The riots caused the deaths of 196 people, according to official figures, [ 64 ] and led to major changes in the state ‘s economic policy to promote and prioritise Malay economic development over that of other ethnicities. Kuala Lumpur achieved city condition on 1 February 1972, [ 65 ] [ 66 ] becoming the foremost colony in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a federal district. [ 67 ] Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared the new state capital. [ 68 ] On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur celebrated the centennial of the local council. The new federal territory Kuala Lumpur iris and anthem were introduced. On 1 February 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, ampere well as the seat of the federal government. [ 69 ] The administrative and judicial functions of the politics were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function, [ 70 ] and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong ( Constitutional King ). [ 71 ]
From the 1990s onwards, major urban developments in the Klang Valley extended the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan sphere. [ 72 ] [ 73 ] This area, known as Greater Kuala Lumpur, extends from the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur westward to Port Klang, east to the border of the Titiwangsa Mountains angstrom well as to the north and south. The area covers early administratively separate towns and cities such as Klang, Shah Alam, Putrajaya and others, [ 74 ] [ 75 ] and is served by the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System. noteworthy projects undertaken within Kuala Lumpur itself include the development of a new Kuala Lumpur City Centre around Jalan Ampang and the Petronas Towers. [ 76 ]

geography [edit ]

The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterised by the huge Klang Valley, bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south, and the Strait of Malacca in the west. Kuala Lumpur is a Malay term that translates to “ muddy concourse ” and is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers. [ 77 ]
Located in the center of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur was a territory of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was split off from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the malaysian union politics. Its location in the most develop submit on the west slide of peninsular Malaysia, which has a wide stretch of flat land than the east coast, has helped it develop faster than other cities in Malaysia. [ 78 ] The municipality covers an sphere of 243 km2 ( 94 sq nautical mile ), [ 3 ] with an average elevation of 81.95 megabyte ( 268 foot 10 in ). [ 79 ]

Climate and weather [edit ]

Protected by the Titiwangsa Range in the east and Indonesia ‘s Sumatra Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur is sheltered from strong winds and has a tropical rain forest climate ( Köppen climate classification Af ), hot, humid and cheery, with abundant rain, particularly during the northeast monsoon season from October to March. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between 32 and 35 °C ( 90 and 95 °F ) and sometimes hit 38 °C ( 100.4 °F ), while minimums brood between 23.4 and 24.6 °C ( 74.1 and 76.3 °F ) and have never fallen below 17.8 °C ( 64.0 °F ). [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Kuala Lumpur typically receives at least 2,600 millimeter ( 100 in ) of rain annually ; June and July are relatively dry, but flush then rainfall typically exceeds 131 millimetres ( 5.2 in ) a calendar month. Floods are frequent in Kuala Lumpur after heavy downpours, specially in the city concentrate, because irrigation social organization lags behind the intense growth in the city. [ 82 ] Smoke from forest fires in nearby Sumatra sometimes casts a haze over the region, and is a major reservoir of contamination, along with exposed burning, motive fomite emissions, and construction. [ 83 ]

Climate data for Kuala Lumpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.0
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.7
Average low °C (°F) 23.4
Record low °C (°F) 17.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 193
Average rainy days 17 17 19 20 18 14 16 16 19 21 24 22 223
Average relative humidity (%) 80 80 80 82 81 80 79 79 81 82 84 83 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.0 192.4 207.9 198.8 206.8 194.4 200.2 189.0 163.8 169.1 152.3 162.6 2,222.3
Source 1: Pogodaiklimat.ru[81]
Source 2: NOAA (sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[84]
Climate data for Kuala Lumpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.1
Average Ultraviolet index 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
Source: Weather Atlas[85]

administration [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur was administered by a corporation sole called the Federal Capital Commissioner from April 1, 1961, until it was awarded city condition in 1972, after which administrator power transferred to the Lord Mayor ( Datuk Bandar ). [ 86 ] Thirteen mayors have been appointed since then. The current mayor is Datuk Mahadi Che Ngah, who has been in office since October 1, 2020. [ 87 ]

local politics [edit ]

The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an representation under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia. [ 86 ] It is responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and construction operate, social and economic development, and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive world power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in identify ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970. [ 88 ]

Districts [edit ]

Districts ( divisions ) of Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur ‘s eleven parliamentary constituencies, with estimated population and share of the full, are congruent with administrative subdivisions under the authority of the Kuala Lumpur City Hall authority. [ 89 ] These 11 districts can be divided into 29 subdistricts .

Politics [edit ]

Political party
Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The federal Constitution stipulates the three branches of the malaysian government : the Executive, Judiciary and Legislative branches. The Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara ( Upper House / House of Senate ) and Dewan Rakyat ( Lower House / House of Representatives ). [ 11 ] list of Kuala Lumpur representatives in the Federal Parliament ( Dewan Rakyat )

economy [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialize and economically, the fastest-growing region in Malaysia. [ 90 ] Despite the move of federal government administration to Putrajaya, certain government institutions such as Bank Negara Malaysia ( National Bank of Malaysia ), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission a well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city. [ 91 ] The city remains the economic and business hub of the area. Kuala Lumpur is a center for finance, policy, very estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is rated the alone ball-shaped city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network ( GaWC ). [ 92 ] The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport at Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang far reinforce the economic meaning of the city .
The Merdeka 118 is the tallest construction in Southeast Asia and it is the second tall build in the world, after Burj Khalifa Bursa Malaysia or the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of July 5, 2013, the marketplace capitalization stood at US $ 505.67 billion. [ 93 ]
The gross domestic product ( GDP ) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM73,536 million in 2008 with an average annual growth pace of 5.9 percentage. [ 94 ] [ 95 ] By 2015, the GDP had reached RM160,388 million, representing 15.1 % of the full GDP of Malaysia. [ 96 ] The per head GDP for Kuala Lumpur in 2013 was RM79,752 with an average annual growth rate of 5.6 percentage, [ 97 ] and RM94,722 in 2015. [ 96 ] Average monthly family income is RM9,073 ( ~ $ 2,200 ) as of 2016, growing at a pace of approximately 6 % a year. [ 98 ] The service sector, comprising finance, policy, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail deal, restaurants and hotels, transport, storehouse and communication, utilities, personal services and politics services form the largest component of employment, representing about 83.0 percentage of the full. [ 99 ] The remaining 17 percentage comes from manufacture and construction. The boastfully service sector is discernible in the issue of local and foreign banks and policy companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the ball-shaped Islamic financing hub [ 100 ] with an increasing number of fiscal institutions providing Islamic financing and the potent presence of Gulf fiscal institutions such as the world ‘s largest Islamic bank, the Al-Rajhi Bank [ 101 ] and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds ( ETFs ), which would help raise Malaysia ‘s profile in the Gulf. [ 102 ] The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is besides host to many multi national companies ‘ regional offices or defend centres, particularly for finance and report, and information engineering functions. Most of the country ‘s largest companies have their headquarters hera, and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur. [ 103 ] early important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur besides has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions that provide a wide-ranging of courses. numerous public and private aesculapian specialist centres and hospitals in the city offer general health services, and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment that caters to locals and tourists. There has been growing vehemence on expanding the economic telescope of the city in other service activities, such as research and development, which support the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to crucial inquiry centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research. [ 104 ] A newfangled fiscal district for Kuala Lumpur is presently under construction : the Tun Razak Exchange ( TRX ), once known as Kuala Lumpur International Financial District ( KLIFD ). The TRX ‘s landmark and big build is The Exchange 106 tower. The 70-acre exploitation will be situated in the heart of Kuala Lumpur and will serve international finance and business opportunities. The new fiscal hub is a strategic enabler of the malaysian government ‘s Economic Transformation Programme ( ETP ), an inaugural by the malaysian government to turn Malaysia into a high income economy nation .

tourism [edit ]

Istana Negara or known as National Palace in Kuala Lumpur, the official residence of the Theor known as National Palace in Kuala Lumpur, the official residency of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tourism plays an important function in the city ‘s service-driven economy. many large cosmopolitan hotel chains have a presence in the city. One of the oldest hotels is the Hotel Majestic. Kuala Lumpur is the sixth most visit city in the earth, with 8.9 million tourists per year. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] tourism here is driven by the city ‘s cultural diverseness, relatively low costs, and broad gastronomic and shopping diverseness. MICE tourism, which chiefly encompasses conventions — has expanded in late years to become a vital part of the industry, and is expected to grow promote once the malaysian government ‘s Economic Transformation Programme kicks in, and with the completion of a raw 93,000 square meter-size MATRADE Centre in 2014. [ 107 ] The MATRADE agency is besides the owner of the Malaysia International Trade And Exhibition Centre ( MITEC ), the largest trade and exhibition center of Malaysia, which is a component of the larger KL Metropolis development situated in the suburb of Segambut. Another celebrated tendency is the increased presence of budget hotels in the city . The Sultan Abdul Samad Building is a historic build designed in the moorish style and once housed respective government offices. The major tourist destinations in Kuala Lumpur include the Petronas Twin Towers, the Bukit Bintang shopping district, the Kuala Lumpur Tower, Petaling Street ( Chinatown ), the Merdeka Square, the Kuala Lumpur railway station, the House of Parliament building, the National Palace ( Istana Negara ), the National Museum, the Royal Museum, Islamic Arts Museum, Central Market, KL Bird Park, Aquaria KLCC, KL River of Life, Saloma Link, the National Monument, and religious sites such as the Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque, Thean Hou Temple and Buddhist Maha Vihara in Brickfields. [ 108 ] Kuala Lumpur plays host to many cultural festivals such as the Thaipusam emanation at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple. Every year during the Thaipusam celebration, a silver chariot carrying the statue of Lord Muruga together with his consort Valli and Teivayanni would be paraded through the city begin at the temple all the direction to Batu Caves in the neighbor Gombak, Selangor. [ 109 ] The entertainment hub of the city is chiefly centred in the Golden Triangle encompassing Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail, Ampang Road and Bintang Walk deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as Kuala Lumpur ‘s largest nightlife and entertainment hot spot, TREC KL. Trendy cabaret, bars and lounges, such as Marini ‘s on 57, Skybar at Traders Hotel, the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, No Black Tie, the Thai Club, Zion Club, Zouk KL, Club Kyō, Dragonfly KL and many others are located here .

retail [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shop malls and is the retail and fashion hub of both Malaysia and Southeast Asia. [ 110 ] denounce in Malaysia contributed RM7.7 billion ( US $ 2.26 billion ) or 20.8 percentage of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006. [ 111 ] Suria KLCC is one of Malaysia ‘s premier upscale shop destinations due to its localization beneath the Petronas Twin Towers. Apart from Suria KLCC, the Bukit Bintang zone has the highest concentration of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur. It includes : pavilion KL, Fahrenheit 88, Plaza Low Yat, Berjaya Times Square, Lot 10, Sungei Wang Plaza, Starhill Gallery, Quill City Mall and Avenue K. [ 112 ] Changkat area of Bukit Bintang hosts respective cafes, alfresco dining outlets, illegal activities such as prostitution and more. It is best known as one of the red-light districts in Kuala Lumpur. Bangsar district besides has a few shop complexes, including Bangsar Village, Bangsar Shopping Centre, KL Gateway Mall, Bangsar South, KL Eco City and Mid Valley Megamall. apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to grocery store locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, normally known as Petaling Street, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and colonial architectural influences. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Since 2000, the malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced a mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held three times a year – in March, May and December – in which all denounce malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading denounce finish in Asia which has been maintained until present with newfangled mega sales. [ 115 ]

Demographics [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.76 million in the city proper as of 2016. [ 116 ] It has a population concentration of 6,696 inhabitants per feather kilometer ( 17,340/sq nautical mile ), and is the most dumbly populated administrative district in Malaysia. [ 3 ] Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites. [ 117 ] Kuala Lumpur is besides the center of the across-the-board Klang Valley metropolitan area covering Petaling Jaya, Klang, Subang Jaya, Puchong, Shah Alam, and Gombak, with an estimated metropolitan population of 7.25 million as of 2017. [ 118 ] Kuala Lumpur ‘s heterogeneous populace includes the nation ‘s three major heathen groups : the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians, although the city besides has a mix of different cultures including Eurasians, Kadazans, Ibans and other autochthonal races from around Malaysia. [ 99 ] [ 119 ]

diachronic demographics [edit ]

Ethnicities of Kuala Lumpur – 2015 Population Quick Info[120]
Ethnic group Percent
Malay 40.32%
Chinese 36.90%
Indians 8.62%
Others 0.98%
Non-Malaysian 13.18%

historically Kuala Lumpur was a predominantly chinese city, although more recently the Bumiputera component of the city has grown well and they are immediately the dominant allele group. The Kuala Lumpur of 1872 beside the Klang River was described by Frank Swettenham as a “ strictly chinese village ”, although a Malay concentration camp already existed at Bukit Nanas at that clock. [ 26 ] By 1875, after participation in the Selangor Civil War by Pahang Malays had ended, Swettenham noted Malay quarters near the chinese area in a cartoon map he had drawn. There were said to be 1,000 Chinese and 700 Malays in the township in this period. many of the Malays may have settled in Kuala Lumpur after the war. [ 26 ] The population of Kuala Lumpur had increased to around three thousand in 1880 when it was made the capital of Selangor. [ 122 ] A meaning component of the Malay population in Kuala Lumpur of this period consisted of Malays recruited by the british in 1880, largely from rural Malacca, to establish a patrol storm of 2–300, many of whom brought their families. Many of the Malays were originally from the other islands of Malay Archipelago i.e. Sumatra and Java. The Mandailings, the Minangkabaus, Javanese, and Buginese began arriving in Kuala Lumpur in the nineteenth hundred, while the Acehnese arrived in the recently twentieth hundred. [ 124 ] In the play along decades that saw the rebuilding of the town, it grew well with a big inflow of immigrants, ascribable in big depart to the construction of a railroad track line in 1886 connecting Kuala Lumpur and Klang. [ 29 ] A census in 1891 of uncertain accuracy gave a name of 43,796 inhabitants, 79 % of whom were Chinese ( 71 % of the Chinese were Hakka 客家人 ), 14 % Malay, and 6 % amerind. [ 122 ] Another possibly more accurate calculate put the population of Kuala Lumpur in 1890 at 20,000. [ 29 ] The condom boom in the early twentieth hundred led to a far increase in population, from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920. [ 56 ] In 1931, 61 % of Kuala Lumpur ‘s 111,418 inhabitants were chinese, [ 125 ] and in 1947 63.5 %. The Malays however began to settle in Kuala Lumpur in significant numbers, in depart due to government employment, a well as the expansion of the city that absorbed the surrounding rural areas where many Malays lived. between 1947 and 1957 the population of Malays in Kuala Lumpur increased from 12.5 to 15 %, while the proportion of Chinese dropped. [ 126 ] The process continued after Malayan independence with the growth of a largely Malay civil avail, and late the implementation of the New Economic Policy which encouraged Malay participation in urban industries and occupation. In 1980 the population of Kuala Lumpur had reached over a million, [ 55 ] with 52 % Chinese, 33 % Malay, and 15 % indian. [ 127 ] From 1980 to 2000 the number of Bumiputeras increased by 77 %, but the Chinese still outnumbered the Bumiputeras in Kuala Lumpur in the 2000 census at 43 % compared to 38 %. [ 99 ] [ 65 ] By the 2010 census, according to the Department of Statistics and excluding non-citizens, the percentage of the Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur had reached around 45.9 % ( 44.7 % Malay ), with the chinese population at 43.2 % and Indians 10.3 %. [ 121 ] A noteworthy phenomenon in holocene times has been the increase fortune of alien residents in Kuala Lumpur, which rose from 1 % of the city ‘s population in 1980 to about 8 % in the 2000 census, and 9.4 % in the 2010 census. [ 99 ] [ 121 ] These figures besides do not include a significant act of illegal immigrants. [ 128 ] Kuala Lumpur ‘s rapid development has triggered a huge inflow of low-skilled extraneous workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into Malaysia, many of whom enter the state illegally or without proper permits. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] parturition rates in Kuala Lumpur have declined and resulted in a lower proportion of young people – the proportion of those below 15 years honest-to-god fell from 33 % in 1980 to slenderly less than 27 % in 2000. [ 99 ] On the other hand, the work age group of 15–59 increased from 63 % in 1980 to 67 % in 2000. [ 99 ] The aged age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4 % in 1980 and 1991 to 6 % in 2000. [ 99 ]

Languages and religions [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur is pluralistic and religiously divers. The city has many places of worship provide to the multi-religious population. Islam is practised chiefly by the Malays, the indian Muslim communities and a little number of chinese Muslims. Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are practised chiefly among the Chinese. Indians traditionally stand by to Hinduism. Some chinese and Indians besides subscribe to Christianity. [ 131 ] As of the 2010 Census, the population of Kuala Lumpur was 46.4 % Muslim, 35.7 % Buddhist, 8.5 % Hindu, 5.8 % Christian, 1.4 % of unknown affiliations, 1.1 % taoist or chinese religion adherent, 0.6 % follower of other religions, and 0.5 % non-religious. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three states where less than 50 % of the population are self-identified Muslims, the early two being Penang and Sarawak. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 87.4 % of the taiwanese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians ( 7.9 % ), chinese tribe religions ( 2.7 % ) and Muslims ( 0.6 % ). The majority of the indian population name as Hindus ( 81.1 % ), with a significant minorities of identifying as Christians ( 7.8 % ), Muslims ( 4.9 % ) and Buddhists ( 2.1 % ). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians ( 44.9 % ), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims ( 31.2 % ) and Buddhists ( 13.5 % ). All bumiputera Malays are Muslim ; [ 132 ] due to the standard in the definition of a Malay in the malaysian fundamental law that they should adhere to Islam. [ 133 ] Bahasa Malaysia is the principal speech in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur residents are broadly literate in English, with a large proportion adopting it as their first linguistic process. malaysian English is a widely used. [ 134 ] It has a strong presence, specially in business, and is taught as a compulsory lyric in schools. [ 119 ] Cantonese and Mandarin are outstanding, as they are spoken by the local anesthetic majority Chinese population. [ 135 ] Another major dialect spoken is Hakka. While Tamil is dominant amongst the local indian population, other indian languages spoken by minorities include Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, and Hindi. [ 136 ] Beside Malay, there are a variety of languages spoken by people of indonesian descent, such as Minangkabau [ 137 ] and Javanese .

cityscape [edit ]

architecture [edit ]

The computer architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a mix of honest-to-god colonial influences, asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, advanced, and postmodernist computer architecture. [ 138 ] A relatively young city compared with early Southeast asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur ‘s luminary colonial-era buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early twentieth centuries. These buildings were designed in a count of styles – Mughal / Moorish Revival, Mock Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or computer architecture. [ 139 ] Most of the style has been modified to use local resources and adapted to the local anesthetic climate, which is hot and humid all year around. A significant architect of the early time period is Arthur Benison Hubback who designed a issue of the colonial-era buildings including the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station and Jamek Mosque .
prior to the moment World War, many shophouses, normally two stories with functional shops on the ground deck and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city concentrate. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese and european traditions. [ 113 ] [ 114 ] Some of these shophouses have made way for newfangled developments but there are still many standing today in the Medan Pasar Besar ( Old Market Square ), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang and Tengkat Tong Shin areas .
Jamek Mosque (Masjid Jamek) is one of the oldest ) is one of the oldest mosques even standing in Kuala Lumpur, built in 1909.

independence coupled with rapid economic emergence from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the nation, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated into the designs of the build, due to Islamic restrictions on imitate nature through drawings. [ 140 ] Examples of these buildings are Telekom Tower, Maybank Tower, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Centre. [ 141 ] Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact they are places of skill and cognition. The 452-metre ( 1,483 foot ) Petronas Towers are the tallest duplicate buildings in the world and the tallest buildings in the nation. [ 142 ] They were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic artwork. [ 143 ] recently modern and postmodernist architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With economic development, old buildings such as Bok House have been razed to make means for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells exist throughout the city, with the most big examples being the Petronas Towers and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Kuala Lumpur ‘s central clientele district today has shifted to the Kuala Lumpur city center ( KLCC ) where many newly and tall buildings with modern and postmodernist architecture fill the horizon. According to the World Tallest 50 Urban Agglomeration 2010 Projection by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Kuala Lumpur ranks 10th among cities that have most buildings above 100 metres with a combined acme of 34,035 metres from its 244 high originate buildings. [ 144 ]

Parks [edit ]

The Lake Gardens, a 92-hectare ( 230-acre ) botanic garden, was the first recreational park created in Kuala Lumpur. The malaysian Parliament building is located near by, and Carcosa Seri Negara, which was once the official residency of British colonial government, is besides sited here. The parking lot includes a butterfly parking lot, deer parking lot, orchid garden, a hibiscus garden, and the Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, which is the populace ‘s largest aviary bird park. [ 145 ] other parks in the city include the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, KLCC Park, Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Taman Tasik Permaisuri ( Queen ‘s Lake Gardens ), Bukit Kiara Botanical Gardens, the equestrian parking lot and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International Park. There are three forest reserves within the city, the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in the city concentrate, the oldest gazette forest reserve in the state 10.52 hour angle or 26.0 acres, Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve ( 7.41 hour angle or 18.3 acres ) and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve ( 42.11 hour angle or 104.1 acres ). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city center, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. [ 146 ] These residual afforest areas are home plate to a number of animal species, particularly monkeys, treeshrews, pygmy goats, budgerigars, squirrels and birds. There is another park in close vicinity to Kuala Lumpur i.e. Templer Park initiated and opened by Sir Gerald Templer in 1954 during the “ Emergency ” time. [ 147 ]

education [edit ]

According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a literacy rate of 97.5 % in 2000, the highest rate in any country or district in Malaysia. [ 148 ] In Malaysia, Malay is the lyric of education for most subjects while English is a compulsory discipline, but as of 2012, English is silent the language of teaching for mathematics and the natural sciences for certain schools. Some schools provide direction in Mandarin and Tamil for certain subjects. [ 149 ] Kuala Lumpur contains 14 third education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens. [ 150 ] several institutions in the city are more than 100 years old — such as Bukit Bintang Girls ‘ School ( 1893–2000, relocated to Taman Shamelin Perkasa in Cheras and renamed GIS Garden International school Seri Bintang Utara ), the Victoria Institution ( 1893 ) ; Methodist Girls ‘ School ( 1896 ) ; Methodist Boys ‘ School ( 1897 ) ; Convent Bukit Nanas ( 1899 ), St. John ‘s Institution ( 1904 ), confucian Private Secondary School ( 1906 ), Kuen Cheng High School ( 1908 ), Tsun Jin High School ( 1913 ) and Maxwell School ( 1917 ) .
Kuala Lumpur is home to the University of Malaya ( UM ). Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region. [ 151 ] It was ranked the best university in Malaysia, the 22nd best in Asia, and 3rd in Southeast Asia in QS World University Rankings 2019. [ 152 ] In late years, the count of international students at the University of Malaya has risen, as a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students. [ 153 ] other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ), International Islamic University Malaysia ( IIUM ), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College ( TARUC ), UCSI University ( UCSI ), Taylor ‘s University ( TULC ), International Medical University ( IMU ), Open University Malaysia ( OUM ), Kuala Lumpur University ( UniKL ), Perdana University ( PU ), Wawasan Open University ( WOU ), HELP University and the arm campus of the National University of Malaysia ( UKM ) and University of Technology Malaysia ( UTM ). The National Defence University of Malaysia is located at Sungai Besi Army Base, at the southern separate of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major center for military and defense engineering studies. This initiation covers studies for the army, united states navy, and air force. [ 154 ] Greater Kuala Lumpur covers an even more extensive choice of universities including several international branches such as Monash University Malaysia Campus, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and Xiamen University Malaysia .

culture [edit ]

Arts [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum, which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artefacts and paintings collected throughout the area. [ 155 ] The Islamic Arts Museum, which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits and a library of Islamic art books, is the largest muslim arts solicitation in Southeast Asia. [ 156 ] The museum ‘s solicitation not only concentrates on works from the Middle East, but besides includes exploit from elsewhere in Asia, such as China and Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur has a craft complex coupled with a museum that displays a assortment of fabric, ceramic, metal craft and weave products. information on the product march is portrayed in panorama format complete with historical facts, proficiency and traditionally engineered equipment. Among the processes shown are pottery reach, intricate wood carve, silver-smithing, weaving songket fabric, stamping batik patterns on fabric, and boat-making. [ 157 ] Royal Selangor has an extremist modern visitor ‘s center, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter museum, gallery and factory. In its pewter-smithing workshop, “ The School of Hard Knocks ”, participants are taught to create their own pewter dish using traditional tools and methods. The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall located underneath the Petronas Towers. The resident orchestra is the malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra ( MPO ), consisting of musicians from all over the populace, and features regular concerts, bedroom concerts and traditional cultural performances. [ 158 ] The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre ( KLPac ) in Sentul West and Damansara Performing Arts Centre ( DPac ) in Damansara Perdana are two of the most install centres in the state for the perform arts, notably field, plays, music, and film screen. It has housed many local productions and has been a assistant of local and regional independent performance artists. [ 159 ] The Future Music Festival Asia has been held in the city since 2012, featuring local and international artists. [ 160 ] The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, murder Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67-hectare ( 14.0-acre ) site neighbouring the National Theatre ( Istana Budaya ) and National Library. The computer architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, ampere well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and is a trustee of the national art inheritance. The Petronas Art Gallery, another center for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre ( KLCC ). The Ilham Tower Gallery near Ampang Park houses exhibitions of works by local and extraneous artists. Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival per annum. [ 161 ] Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, [ 162 ] which includes international brands and local designers. Kuala Lumpur besides is becoming the concentrate for modern media, invention and creative industry development in the area and hosts the international creative industry event Kreative.Asia, which gathers local, regional and international experts in the creative industry who are involved in the universe, growth and pitch of synergistic content, arts, community and applications. Kuala Lumpur is at the vanguard of the convergence of media, art, culture and communications .

Sports and diversion [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks, gardens and open spaces for amateur purposes. full open quad for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased importantly by 169.6 percentage from 5.86 feather kilometres ( 1,450 acres ) in 1984 to 15.8 square kilometres ( 3,900 acres ) in 2000. [ 163 ] Kuala Lumpur was touted as one of the host cities for the Formula One World championship from 1999 to 2017. [ 164 ] The open-wheel car racing A1 Grand Prix [ 165 ] was held until the series folded in 2009. The Motorcycle Grand Prix [ 166 ] races are held at the Sepang International Circuit in Sepang in the neighbor department of state of Selangor. The Formula One consequence contributed significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This was apparent during the asian fiscal crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, in Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6 %. [ 167 ] In 2015, the Kuala Lumpur Street Circuit was constructed to host the Kuala Lumpur City Grand Prix centrifugal racing event. football is one of the most popular sports in Kuala Lumpur. The Merdeka Tournament is chiefly held at Stadium Merdeka. The city is besides the base of Kuala Lumpur City, which plays in the Malaysia Super League. Kuala Lumpur hosted the official asian Basketball Championship in 1965, 1977 and 1985. The city ‘s basketball supporters cheered Malaysia ‘s national basketball team to a Final Four polish in 1985, the team ‘s best operation to date. Further, the city is home to the Kuala Lumpur Dragons, 2016 Champions of the ASEAN Basketball League. [ 168 ] The team plays its base games in the MABA Stadium. KL Grand Prix CSI 5*, [ 169 ] a five-star international showjumping horseman event, is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the earth ‘s acme riders and their prize horses to Malaysia. other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run, [ 170 ] the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is besides one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race. [ 171 ] The annual Malaysia Open Super Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur has a considerable align of international class sports facilities after hosting the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Many of these facilities, including the chief stadium ( with running racetrack and a football field ), field hockey stadium and swimming pools located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil while a velodrome and more liquid pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, following to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are besides football fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburb. Badminton and ‘ takraw ‘ courts are normally included in community halls. The AFC House—current headquarters of the Asian Football Confederation—is built on a 4-acre ( 1.6 hour angle ) complex in the Kuala Lumpur suburb of Bukit Jalil. Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club ( KLGCC ) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil. The city besides has numerous large secret fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First, True Fitness and major five-star hotels. Kuala Lumpur is besides the birthplace of Hashing, which began in December 1938 when a group of british colonial officers and expatriates, some from the Selangor Club, began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional british Paper Chase or “ Hare and Hounds ”. [ 172 ] Kuala Lumpur hosted the 128th IOC Session in 2015 where the IOC elected Beijing as the master of ceremonies city of the 2022 Winter Olympics [ 173 ] and Lausanne as the host city of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics. [ 174 ]

Media [edit ]

Kuala Lumpur daily, business, and digital papers include The Malaysian Reserve, The Edge, The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, Malay Mail, Berita Harian, and Harian Metro. Mandarin and Tamil newspapers are besides published daily, for exemplar Sin Chew Daily, China Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and Tamil Nesan, Malaysia Nanban, and Makkal Osai. Kuala Lumpur is besides the headquarters for Malaysia ‘s express media public government terrestrial television stations : TV1 and TV2, the subsidiaries of RTM, television Alhijrah, a auxiliary of Alhijrah Media Corporation, and Media Prima Berhad, a media corporation that houses the private commercial tellurian television stations : TV3, NTV7, 8TV and TV9. Programmes are broadcast in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil .
The city is home to the nation ‘s main pay television serve, Astro, a satellite television receiver service. Kuala Lumpur female prima donna pop singers include Elizabeth Tan, Ernie Zakri and Azira Shafinaz. Kuala Lumpur has been featured in aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. television series set in Kuala Lumpur include A Tale of 2 Cities ( starring Rui En and Joanne Peh ). Movies set in Kuala Lumpur include Police Story 3: Super Cop ( starring Jackie Chan and Michelle Yeoh ) and Entrapment ( starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones ), in which the Petronas Towers were depicted in flames for a few seconds. [ 175 ] Books set in Kuala Lumpur include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin, [ 176 ] My Life As a Fake by Peter Carey, and Democracy by Joan Didion. [ 177 ] A few celebrated local films featured Kuala Lumpur as backdrop location, such as Masam-masam Manis ( 1965 ), Keluarga Si Comat ( 1973 ), Jiwa Remaja ( 1976 ), Abang ( 1981 ), Matinya Seorang Patriot ( 1984 ), Kembara Seniman Jalanan ( 1986 ), Orang Kampung Otak Kimia ( 1988 ), Hati Bukan Kristal ( 1990 ), Mat Som ( 1990 ), Mira Edora ( 1990 ), Femina ( 1993 ), Maria Mariana ( 1996 ), Hanya Kawan ( 1997 ), KLU ( 1999 ), Soal Hati ( 2000 ), KL Menjerit ( 2002 ), Laila Isabella ( 2003 ), Gangster ( 2005 ), Gol & Gincu ( 2005 ), Remp-it ( 2006 ), Cinta ( 2006 ), Anak Halal ( 2007 ) Evolusi KL Drift ( 2008 ), Adnan Sempit ( 2010 ), KL Gangster ( 2011 ), Kepong Gangster ( 2012 ), Lagenda Budak Setan 2: Katerina ( 2012 ) and Kolumpo ( 2013 ). A few local anesthetic films featured Kuala Lumpur during the historical earned run average, such as 1975: Hati Malaya ( 2007 ), Petaling Streets Warrior ( 2011 ) and Tanda Putera ( 2013 ). Kuala Lumpur is mentioned in many songs by local malaysian artists, such as “ Keroncong Kuala Lumpur ‘ ” by P. Ramlee, “ Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota ” by Saloma, “ Chow Kit Road ” by Sudirman Arshad, “ Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur ” by Alleycats, “ Streets of Kuala Lumpur ” by Murkyway, “ K.L. ” by Vandal, “ Kuala Lumpur ” by Poetic Ammo, “ Anak Dara ” by Azmyl Yunor, “ KL ” ‘ by Too Phat, “ Kotarayaku ” by Hujan and Altimet, and “ Lagu Untuk Kuala Lumpur ” by Tom. Kuala Lumpur was one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asia and The Amazing Race. [ 178 ] Video games have besides been set in Kuala Lumpur, including three levels of Hitman 2: Silent Assassin and two tracks in the rush game Burnout Dominator. A world game show set in Kuala Lumpur from February until April 2013 was aired on AXN Asia. The Apprentice Asia was launched on 22 May 2013 .

transportation [edit ]

Rukun Negara, the Malaysian national pledge, at the Upper Concourse Level of The cosmetic relief wall portraying the, the malaysian national pledge, at the Upper Concourse Level of Merdeka MRT station As in most other asian cities, drive is the main commute choice in Kuala Lumpur. [ 179 ] Every separate of the city is well connected with highways. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive examination road network with more exile development planned. [ 180 ] Public transportation system covers a variety show of transportation modes such as bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote public transport, use rates are low, 16 percentage of the population in 2006. [ 179 ] however, public transport use will increase with the expansion of the rail network, [ 181 ] operated by Prasarana Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley via its subsidiaries Rapid Rail and Rapid Bus, using the Rapid KL brand list. [ 182 ] Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, Prasarana Malaysia has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley metropolitan area [ 183 ] to increase passenger numbers and improve Kuala Lumpur ‘s public transmit arrangement. Prasarana Malaysia has adopted the hub and address system to provide greater connectivity, and reduce the indigence for more buses. [ 184 ] [ 185 ] KL Sentral was added on 16 April 2001 and served as the modern transportation hub of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System .

Urban track [edit ]

The KTM Komuter, a commuter rail avail, was introduced in 1995 as the first railing transportation system system to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas. Services were late expanded to other parts of Malaysia with the introduction of the Northern and Southern sectors. [ 186 ] KTM Komuter ‘s 175 kilometer ( 109 security service ) network in the Central Sector has 53 stations. It consists of two cross-city routes, namely the Port Klang Line ( Tanjung Malim to Port Klang ) and Seremban Line ( Batu Caves to Pulau Sebang/Tampin ). Transfers between the two main lines can be made at any of the four stations on the central core : KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Bank Negara and Putra. Light Rapid Transit ( LRT ) Malaysia is the medium-capacity rail lines in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The first LRT line was opened in 1996 and the system has since expanded to three lines, which opened in 1998 and 1999. Along with the MRT, the LRT is constructed and owned by the Prasarana, with function concessions presently run by Rapid KL and Rapid Rail. In 2006, the government announced the Sri Petaling Line and Kelana Jaya line annex projects. [ 187 ] Unlike the original line, which used the fixed-block bespeak block system, the extension uses the communications-based discipline master ( CBTC ) signaling system. [ 188 ] [ 189 ]
Mass Rapid Transit ( MRT ) Malaysia is a dense track rapid transit arrangement that constitutes the majority of the railway network in Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the Klang Valley. The first section of the MRT opened on 16 December 2016, and the net has since grown quickly in accord with Malaysia ‘s aim of developing a comprehensive examination rail network as the backbone of the state ‘s public department of transportation system. The network consists of three lines – the 13 MRT Circle Line, looping around Kuala Lumpur, the 9 MRT Kajang Line and the 12 MRT Putrajaya Line, covering a 20 kilometer radius in the southeast–northwest guidance from the city center, will integrate the stream rapid transit system and serve high-density areas which are presently not serviced by any rapid transit system. About 90 raw stations are planned in this “ wheel and rundle ” concept, out of which 26 in the city center will be underground. Ridership capacity will be 2 million passengers per day. [ 190 ] The KL Monorail opened on 31 August 2003 with 11 stations running 8.6 kilometer ( 5 myocardial infarction ) on two parallel elevated tracks. The production line is count 8 and coloured lighter green on official transit maps. It connects the KL Sentral transportation hub in the south and Titiwangsa in the north with the “ gold triangle ”, a commercial, shopping, and entertainment area comprising Bukit Bintang, Imbi, Sultan Ismail, and Raja Chulan. [ 191 ]
Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The independent airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( KLIA ) at Sepang, Selangor, which is besides the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about 50 kilometres ( 31 nautical mile ) south of city. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, besides known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998. KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations on six continents around the universe, [ 192 ] and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines and low-cost carrier, AirAsia. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres, an airport rail link service from KL Sentral, which takes twenty-eight minutes and costs RM 55 ( roughly US $ 13.50 ), [ 193 ] while travelling by cable car or bus via highway will take about an hour but cost a lot less. direct buses from KLIA to the city center are bountiful ( every 10 to 15 minutes during acme hours ), air-condition and comfortable with fares ranging from RM 11 ( roughly US $ 2.70 ) to RM 15 ( roughly US $ 3.70 ). Air Asia and other low-cost carrier flights do not fly out of KLIA independent terminal, but from KLIA2, which is two kilometres from KLIA. KLIA2 is served by an reference of the KLIA Ekspres and by a release shuttle bus serve from KLIA. As of 2018, Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is alone used for lease and propjet flights by airlines such as Firefly and Malindo Air. [ 194 ]

Buses [edit ]

Bas Mini KL or Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service was one of the oldest and popular Malaysia public bus service, having served Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley region. The buses were primarily painted pink with a white stripe on the sides, and had a capacity of only 20-30 passengers, due to their smaller size. The buses operated on a commission footing, with overhaul operators paid according to the fares they collected. The mini-bus serve was from 23 September 1975 and discontinued on 1 July 1998, to be replaced by the Intrakota bus service and later, Rapid Bus in 2005. [ 195 ] Rapid Bus began the first phase of the vamp of its bus net in January 2006, introducing 15 City Shuttle bus topology routes which serve major areas in the Central Business District ( CBD ) of Kuala Lumpur. In 2008, Rapid Bus operated 167 routes with 1,400 buses covering 980 residential areas with a ridership of about 400,000 per day. [ 196 ] The buses run between four hub at the edge of the cardinal business district, namely KL Sentral, Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Maluri, and Medan Pasar in the city center. These bus topology hub besides serve as vilify interchanges, with the exception of Medan Pasar, although it is at a walking distance from Masjid Jamek LRT station. einsteinium On June 18, 2020, Rapid Bus released a new feature : real-time location of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] [ 200 ] effective 10 April 2019, all RapidKL buses are implementing in full cashless travel for all routes by stages, in which the bus accepts Touch n Go card only for exploiter convenience. These systems were in full implemented by May 27, 2019. [ 201 ] Almost 170 RapidKL busbar routes are covered with the real time feature, which was expanded to the MRT bird feeder busbar service. Rapid Bus is however not the only bus operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. other busbar operators are Selangor Omnibus, Setara Jaya bus, and Causeway Link .

taxis [edit ]

typical public cab in Kuala Lumpur In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have classifiable white and crimson liveries. many companies operate and maintain pools of different model of cars in their own brands. Before local car production began, the Mercedes-Benz 200, Mazda 323/Ford Laser, Toyota Mark II X80 series and the Opel Kadett were used. [ 202 ] Most were scrapped and replaced by Protons, but there are still a large number of these models running the roads. Kuala Lumpur is one of the major ASEAN cities with cab extensively running on natural boast. cab can be hailed from taxi stands or from the streets. Taxis may be flagged down at any time of the day along any public road outside of the Central Business District ( CBD ). however, increased use of ridesharing services like Grab, MyCar and JomRides has resulted in a decrease in taxi use. [ 203 ] however, the London-based web site, LondonCabs.co.uk has claimed that taxis in the city charge passengers high rates, refusing to turn on their meters and offering rather over-priced flat-rate fares, [ 204 ] although other passengers refute such claims. The heads of some taxi associations came out and distanced themselves from cab drivers who had given the taxi industry a bad name, promising the public that not all taxi drivers were like that. [ 205 ]

Twin towns – sister cities [edit ]

Jalan Selat, Straits Road) in Kuala Lumpur (above) and Kuala Lumpur avenue in Isfahan (below)Isfahan street (formerly, Straits Road) in Kuala Lumpur (above) and Kuala Lumpur avenue in Isfahan (below) Kuala Lumpur is twinned with :

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]