City in Essex, England
This article is about the city in England. For other uses, see Chelmsford ( disambiguation )
human settlement in England

Chelmsford ( ) [ 2 ] is a City, and the county town of Essex, in the East of England. It is located in the London commuter belt, approximately 30 miles ( 50 kilometres ) northeasterly of London and 22 miles ( 35 kilometres ) from Colchester. The population is approximately 112,000 in the urban area, [ 1 ] while the wide zone has 168,310. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The demonym for a Chelmsford resident is “ Chelmsfordian ”. The main conurbation of Chelmsford incorporates all or region of the erstwhile parishes of Broomfield, Newland Spring, Great Leighs, The Walthams, Great Baddow, Little Baddow, Galleywood, Howe Green, Margaretting, Pleshey, Stock, Roxwell, Danbury, Bicknacre, Writtle, Moulsham, Rettendon, The Hanningfields, The Chignals, Widford and Springfield, including Springfield Barnes, now known as Chelmer Village. The communities of Chelmsford, Massachusetts and Chelmsford, Ontario and Chelmsford, New Brunswick are named after the city. Chelmsford ‘s population consists of a big number of City and Docklands commuters, attracted by the 30–35-minute travel into cardinal London via the Great Eastern Main Line railroad track. The same travel takes at least 60 minutes by road, via the A12 .

history [edit ]

early history [edit ]

Before 1199, there were settlements nearby from ancient times. A Neolithic and a belated Bronze Age settlement have been found in the Springfield suburb, and the town was occupied by the Romans. A Roman garrison was built in AD 60, and a civilian town grew up around it. The town was given the name of Caesaromagus ( Caesar’s field or Caesar’s marketplace ), although the argue for it being given the bang-up award of bearing the Imperial prefix is now ill-defined – possibly as a fail ‘planned town ‘ provincial capital to replace Londinium or Camulodunum. The remains of a mansio, a combination post office, civic center and hotel, lie beneath the streets of advanced Moulsham, and the ruins of an octangular temple are located beneath the Odeon devious. The township disappeared for a while after the Romans left Britain. An anglo-saxon burial was discovered at Broomfield to the north of Chelmsford in the late nineteenth hundred and the finds are nowadays in the british Museum. The road ‘Saxon Way ‘ now marks the site. The city ‘s mention is derived from Ceolmaer’s ford which was close to the locate of the show High Street stone bridge. In the Domesday Book of 1086, the town was called Celmeresfort and by 1189 it had changed to Chelmsford. Its position on the Londinium – Camulodonum Roman road ( the modern A12 ) ensured the early on prosperity of Chelmsford .

Royal Charter [edit ]

On 7 September 1199, following the commission of a bridge over the River Can by Maurice, Bishop of London, King John granted to William of Sainte-Mère-Eglise a Royal Charter for Chelmsford to hold a market, marking the origin of the modern town. An under-cover market, operating Tuesday to Saturday, is calm an important depart of the city kernel over 800 years late. The town became the seat of the local assize during the early thirteenth hundred ( though assizes were besides held at Brentwood ) and by 1218 it was recognised as the county town of Essex, a position it has retained to the salute day .

royal connections [edit ]

King Robert I of Scotland, better known as Robert the Bruce ( 1274-1309 ), had close ties with the nearby village of Writtle and there is some evidence to suggest he was born at Montpeliers Farm in the village, [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] but the narrative is disputed and possibly conflated with his father, Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale. Chelmsford was importantly involved in the Peasants ‘ Revolt of 1381, and King Richard II moved on to the township after quelling the rebellion in London. ‘The Sleepers and The Shadows ‘, written by Hilda Grieve in 1988 using original sources, states : “ For about a week, from Monday 1st July to Saturday 6th July [ 1381 ], Chelmsford became the seat of politics … The baron probably lodged at his nearby manor house at Writtle. He was attended by his council, headed by the irregular Chancellor … the new headman justice … the imperial chancery … Their formidable job in Chelmsford was to draft, engross, date, seal and dispatch by messengers riding to the farthest corners of the kingdom, the daily batches of commissions, mandates, letters, orders and proclamations issued by the government not merely to speed the summons of peace of the kingdom, but to conduct much ordinary daily business of the Crown and Government. ” Richard II excellently revoked the charters which he had made in concession to the peasants on 2 July 1381, while in Chelmsford. It could be said that given this movement of government office, Chelmsford for a few days at least became the das kapital of England. Many of the ringleaders of the disgust were executed on the gallows at what is now Primrose Hill. King Henry VIII purchased the Boleyn estate in 1516, and built Beaulieu Palace on the current locate of New Hall School. This late became the residence of his then mistress, and later wife Anne. soon after it became the residency of Henry ‘s daughter, by his foremost marriage, Mary I .

Witchfinder General [edit ]

In the seventeenth century many of the victims of Matthew Hopkins ( the self-styled “Witchfinder General” ) spent their last days imprisoned in Chelmsford, before being tried at the Assizes and hanged for witchcraft .

Charles Dickens [edit ]

In 1835, when visiting Essex and Suffolk to cover local elections, Charles Dickens visited Chelmsford. He was obviously thus broken that he could not find a newspaper on a Sunday that he wrote in a letter to a friend that Chelmsford was “ the dullest and most dazed place on earth ”. [ 9 ]

birthplace of radio receiver [edit ]

  • In 1899 Guglielmo Marconi opened the world’s first “wireless” factory, in Chelmsford.
  • In 1920 Marconi made the first official publicised sound broadcast in the United Kingdom, featuring Dame Nellie Melba, in Chelmsford.
  • In 1922, Marconi made the world’s first regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment (call sign “2MT”) began from Writtle, a village near Chelmsford.

2MT led to the initiation of its baby station in London “ 2LO “, and subsequently to the BBC. See far below under the head “ Marconi ”

Bishopric [edit ]

In 1914 Chelmsford ‘s church service became a cathedral ( see below ) and the town got its own bishop .

World War II [edit ]

During World War II Chelmsford, an crucial centre of light technology war production, was attacked from the tune on respective occasions, both by aircraft of the Luftwaffe and by projectile. The worst single loss of life took locate on Tuesday 19 December 1944, when the 367th Vergeltungswaffe 2 or V2 rocket to hit England fell on a residential street ( Henry Road ) near the Hoffmans ball wear factory and not army for the liberation of rwanda from the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company factory in New Street, which may besides have been the target ( Hoffmans factory was key to the war effort, provision bearings for countless applications, making it a key target ). thirty-nine people were killed and 138 hurt, 47 badly. [ 10 ] several dwellings in Henry Road were completely destroyed, and many in nearby streets were badly damaged. A recently restored memorial to the dead is in the city cemetery in Writtle Road. On 13 May 1943 Luftwaffe bombing raids hit Chelmsford leaving more than 50 people absolutely and making about 1,000 residents homeless. The bomb on this night were dropped chiefly in the town concentrate, Springfield and Moulsham. The GHQ Line depart of the british hardened plain defences of World War II runs immediately through Chelmsford with many pillboxes still in universe to the north and south of the city. Hylands Park, the site of the former annual V Festival, hosted a prisoner of war camp, and from 1944 was the headquarters of the Special Air Service ( SAS ). [ 11 ]

recent history [edit ]

Since the 1980s defence-related industries in the city have declined, most notably the Marconi Company with all of its factories either being closed or sold. The web site on West Hanningfield Road was sold to BAE Systems ; the Waterhouse Lane site sold to E2V and the New Street locate is undergoing major renovation for residential/mixed use. [ 12 ] The erstwhile largest employer in Chelmsford, RHP ( the early Hoffman ball bearing manufacturing caller ), closed its New Street/Rectory Lane site in 1989. Some of the factory remains and has been converted into luxury apartments and a health club although most of the locate was demolished to make manner for the Rivermead Campus of the Anglia Ruskin University. however, the city ‘s localization close to London and at the centre of Essex has helped it grow in importance as a financial, administrative and distribution centre. The Channels Development, Beaulieu Park, The Village and Chancellor Park are some of the most late large-scale caparison developments built in the city. The local plan targets an extra 18,000 new homes by 2036, in developments largely to the north of the city. [ 13 ] In 2007, the Channel 4 program Location, Location, Location voted Chelmsford the 8th-best position to live in the UK. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ]

UK City Status [edit ]

The Letters Patent formally granting city status to the City of Chelmsford were received on 6 June 2012. [ 17 ] to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] The announcement to make Chelmsford a city had been made on 14 March 2012 by the Lord President of the Privy Council and Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg .

local government and politics [edit ]

Chelmsford War Memorial with Chelmsford Civic Centre in the background Chelmsford is at the geographic and political center of Essex and has been the county town since 1215. The headquarters of Essex County Council is at County Hall, Duke Street [ 22 ] and the headquarters of Chelmsford City Council at the Civic Centre, Duke Street. [ 23 ] The civil center was designed by Cordingley & McIntyre as a public library and completed in April 1935. [ 24 ] The headquarters of Essex Police is located in the Springfield area of the city at Kingston Crescent. [ 25 ] Chelmsford formed separate of the ancient Chelmsford hundred of Essex. [ 26 ] It was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1888, [ 27 ] under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. In 1934 the borough was enlarged by gaining 1,659 acres ( 671 hectares ) from Chelmsford Rural District, including parts of the parishes of Broomfield, Springfield, Widford and Writtle. [ 27 ] The municipal borough and civil parish. [ 28 ] was abolished on 1 April 1974 and its former area was combined with most of the remainder of the rural zone to form the larger Borough of Chelmsford which was granted city status by Royal Charter in 2012. For the Chelmsford constituency in the House of Commons, the penis of Parliament is Vicky Ford. In the 2019 general election, Ford gained 31,934 votes ( 55.9 % ), winning the seat with a majority over Marie Goldman, the Liberal Democrat campaigner, who gained 14,313 votes ( 25.1 % ). [ 29 ]

Demographics [edit ]

In the 2001 Census, the population for Chelmsford consisted of male : 49.2 %, female : 50.8 %, under 18 : 22.5 %, over 60 : 19 %, born outside UK : 5.9 %, white : 96 %, black : 0.7 %, asian : 1.4 %, mix : 1.1 %, other : 0.7 %, christian : 73.3 %, Muslim : 0.9 %. Education census statistics for Chelmsford consisted of full-time students between 16- 74 : 20.2 %, No qualifications for ages between 16–74 : 22.2 %. Housing census statistics for Chelmsford consisted of owner concern housing : 76.5 %, social housing : 14.9 % ( Council : 11.3 %, Housing Association 3.6 % ), privately rented : 6.3 %, homes without central heating and/or individual bathroom : 5.8 % .

economy [edit ]

commercial enterprise and department of commerce [edit ]

high Chelmer Shopping Centre prior to the 2009 renovation. in the first place an agrarian and market town, Chelmsford has been an crucial concentrate for diligence since the nineteenth century. Following the opening of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation in 1797, cheaper department of transportation and raw materials made mill and malting the main industries until the 1850s, when increasing prosperity created a local market for agricultural machinery. Foundries and technology works followed including Fell Christy at his factory ( In belated years known as Christy Norris Ltd ) on the recess of Kings Road and Broomfield Road opened 1858, closed 1985, Coleman and Moreton, Thomas Clarkson ( Steam Omnibus manufacturer and Founder of the Eastern National Bus Company ) and Eddington and Stevenson ( makers of grip engines ). The Company Christy Norris however survives, trade as Christy Turner Ltd based in Ipswich. A residential street close to the erstwhile factory was named “ Fell Christy ” in his award. equally well as the headquarters of Essex Police, Essex County and Chelmsford City Councils, the modern city is home to a range of national and international companies including M & G Group, Teledyne e2v and ebm-papst. The continuing importance of Chelmsford as an employment kernel is demonstrated by the fact that the number of “ in ” commuters ( by and large from other parts of Essex ) about precisely balances the count of workers commuting into London. Chelmsford is largely a commercial city which employs around 80,000 people. There are three medium-sized patronize centres, Bond Street, High Chelmer and The Meadows. Chelmsford has six retail parks, Riverside, Chelmer Village, Clocktower Retail Park, The Army & Navy, Moulsham Lodge Retail Park and the smaller Homelands Retail Park house a Flagship B & Q Store, Wyvale Garden Centre ( part of the Garden center Group ) and Pets Corner. The High Street is full of mugwump and chain stores. a well as the leading High Street name, there is besides a broad variety of specialist retailers, particularly in Baddow Road and Moulsham Street which are located at the end of the pedestrianised High Street. On 29 September 2016 a new retail development opened anchored by John Lewis. On 6 January 2005, Chelmsford was granted Fairtrade Town status. [ 30 ] ample businesses are nowadays based in the Chelmsford Business Park at Boreham house companies such as the Anderson Group and Global Marine Systems. The city besides has a low unemployment rate ( 1.6 % in 2002 ) and a knowing work force, with 9 % holding a degree or above ( in 2002 ; british average : 7.1 % ). [ 31 ] Chelmsford has a vibrant nightlife scene with many pubs, belated nox bars and restaurant establishments in the city center area. Its central Essex location and full public transportation links make the city ideal for revellers, commuters and tourists to visit from surrounding areas. [ citation needed ]

marconi [edit ]

Marconi ‘s New Street Factory in 1920 The frontage to Colonel Crompton ‘s early Arc Works in Writtle Road In 1899, Guglielmo Marconi opened the populace ‘s first “ wireless ” factory under the list ‘The Marconi Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company ‘ in Hall Street, employing about 50 people. The company was later called the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. For this argue Chelmsford is credited as the “ birthplace of radio ”, and this phrase can be seen on administrative signs on major roads entering the city, although this affirmation is disputed. [ 32 ] Marconi soon outgrew its Hall Street premises, and in June 1912 the ship’s company moved to the brand modern purpose-built 70,000-square-foot ( 6,500-square-metre ) New Street Works. On 15 June 1920 the factory was the location of the first official publicised reasoned broadcast in the United Kingdom, featuring Dame Nellie Melba using two 450-foot ( 140-metre ) radio broadcast masts. In 1922, the world ‘s first regular radio broadcasts for entertainment began from the Marconi laboratories at Writtle near Chelmsford – Call sign ‘ 2MT ‘ in what was little more than a wooden hut. In 1999, Marconi ‘s refutation division, including the Chelmsford facilities, was purchased by british Aerospace to form BAE Systems. Two sites remain under BAE control ; the Great Baddow site which is now BAE ‘s Advanced Technology Centre and its Integrated Systems Technologies business at Glebe Road. The military and secure communications division of Marconi was merged into Selex Communications was based at the New Street factory however they vacated the site in April 2008 with the remaining operations moved to nearby Basildon. This brought to an end of more than 100 years of the Marconi list in Chelmsford. [ 33 ] The New Street factory was scheduled to be redeveloped with function planned to start during 2010, [ 34 ] however this fell through after the newfangled web site owners Ashwell Property Group entered administration in December 2009. The New Street factory remained vacate, derelict and vandalised for several years much to the depress of Marconi Veterans and Chelmsfordians. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] The locate was finally sold for renovation to Bellway Homes in the summer of 2012 with demolition of the majority of the site including the iconic Marconi House and Building 720 in April/May 2013. alone the Grade II listed water tugboat, The 1912 movement build façade, the New Street cottages and the office firm will remain. [ 37 ]

Cromptons Electrical Engineering [edit ]

Chelmsford became home plate to the United Kingdom ‘s foremost electrical engineer works established by Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton. Crompton as he was better known was a lead authority of electrical engineer and was a initiate of electric street lighting and electric traction motors within the United Kingdom. Crompton installed electric street lights around the township center to celebrate the incorporation of the Borough of Chelmsford in 1888. Although this made Chelmsford one of the earliest towns to receive electric street ignition, the Council late decided to have it removed because boast was cheaper and the Council owned the gasworks. Crompton supplied the grip motors for the first electric trains on Southend Pier. The company besides manufactured electric switchgear, alternators and generators for many office stations in the UK and worldwide. Crompton set up his original factory known as the ‘Arc Works ‘ in Queen Street in 1878. After a fire there in 1895, [ 38 ] he built a huge new electrical engineer factory besides called the ‘Arc Works ‘ in Writtle Road. The tauten was called Crompton and Co. and in 1927 became Crompton Parkinson after Colonel Crompton formed a occupation partnership with fellow british electrical engineer Frank Parkinson. During World War II, the factory was frequently targeted by the Luftwaffe. In 1969 Crompton Parkinson Ltd was downsized and operations moved elsewhere after a coup d’etat by Hawker Siddeley and the web site was taken over by the Marconi Company and became the basis for the newly formed Marconi Radar Systems. [ 39 ] After years of refuse, the Marconi factory last closed in 1992 [ 38 ] and the site was demolished a few years by and by aside from the facade on Writtle Road. A housing exploitation called ‘The Village ‘ now occupies the web site with road names such as Rookes Crescent, Evelyn Place, Crompton Street and Parkinson Drive as tributes to the former resident .

Hoffmann Ball Bearings [edit ]

Hoffmann Ball bearings was a major employer in Chelmsford in the deep 19th and early twentieth centuries. They produced ball bearings which were used for early transatlantic flight. [ 40 ] The firm became Ransome Hoffmann and Pollard ( R.H.P. ) after Hoffman ‘s amalgamation with Ransome & Marles and Pollard Ball and Roller Bearing Company in 1969. [ 41 ] The R.H.P. trade name, cerebral property rights and party assets were absorbed into the japanese NSK Ltd. bearing company in early 1990 trade as NSK-RHP Ltd. at its UK base in Newark on Trent with the historic R.H.P. name ultimately disappearing in 2001. [ citation needed ] Most of the former Hoffman New Street factory was demolished during the summer of 1990 and the web site is nowadays occupied by the sprawling Rivermead Campus of the Anglia Ruskin University. The entirely connection to the company name in Chelmsford today is the RHP Bowls baseball club located on contribution of the erstwhile Hoffmans Social Club site at Canterbury Way and Hoffmans Way at the corner of the previous factory locate at New Street and Rectory Lane .

english Electric Valve Company [edit ]

The Waterhouse Lane–based company began in the early on 1940s as a separate of the Marconi group, manufacturing magnetrons for defense radar systems. The company was first registered as a separate caller in Chelmsford, Essex in 1947 under Serge Aisenstein. [ 42 ] Its initial name was the Phoenix Dynamo Co Ltd, though it immediately changed its name to English Electric Valve Company Ltd. In 1959 Bob Coulson established Traveling-wave tube and Microwave tube sections and they were producing ceramic hydrogen thyratrons as well. [ 42 ] By this time EEV was the largest high-tech fabricate company in the UK. [ 43 ] A class late they won an EMMY award for outstanding contribution to Electronics Technology in developing the 4½ ” orthicon tube. In 1961 they acquired Associated Electrical Industries Valve business based in Lincoln. Sir Charles Oatley was a director of the ship’s company from 1966 to 1985. [ 44 ] In 1962, EEV opened its first gear office in America in Buffalo, NY. In the 1970s EEV collaborated with QinetiQ in the development of the pyroelectric vidicon, the first thermal image detector. [ 45 ] The company has received 13 Queen ‘s Awards for Technology in its history, most recently in 2006 for low light imaging devices and in 2004 for thyratrons for cancer radiotherapy treatment. besides, in 1972, they opened an office in Paris, France and in 1977 they opened another agency in New York but this time in Elmsford. Keith Attwood, e2v ‘s CEO joined in 1999, as MD of EEV, after a short period as Marconi Applied technologies, the ship’s company was renamed to e2v technologies in 2002 as partially of a management buy out supported by 3i following the collapse of the Marconi group. Following far growth under 3i, in 2004 the caller floated on the London Stock Exchange. In 2017, e2v was acquired by US company Teledyne Technologies and changed its name to Teledyne e2v, 70 years after its registration as a Chelmsford-based company. It continues to operate there .

Britvic [edit ]

Britvic House, the early Britvic headquarters The Britvic soft drink company began biography as the british Vitamin Company in 1948. however, the origins of the company can be traced back to a chemist ‘s denounce in Tindal Street where season waters were on sale a early as the mid-19th hundred. The company was acquired by Showerings of Shepton Mallet, and subsequently a division of Allied Breweries from 1968, The british Vitamin Company changed its name to Britvic in 1971. [ 46 ] In 1986 it merged with Canada Dry Rawlings and acquired the R. White ‘s Lemonade brand. [ 46 ] It acquired Tango from Beechams in 1987 and since that year it has besides owned the UK franchise for Pepsi and 7 Up. [ 46 ] In 1995 it bought Robinson ‘s from Reckitt & Colman. [ 47 ] In December 2005 the Company underwent an initial populace volunteer ( IPO ) allowing its main shareholders ( InterContinental Hotels Group, Whitbread, Pernod Ricard ) to realise their investments. In May 2007 the caller went on to buy the soft drinks and distribution businesses of Ireland ‘s Cantrell & Cochrane ( C & C ) for £169.5m. [ 48 ] On 14 November 2012 the Company agreed to merge with Scotland ‘s A.G. Barr, producer of scottish delicate drinks Irn-Bru, Tizer and D’n’B, to create one of Europe ‘s largest voiced drink companies. [ 49 ] however the fusion was put into serious doubt [ 50 ] [ 51 ] after the Office of Fair Trading referred the fusion to the Competition Commission. [ 52 ] The Britvic UK headquarters at Britvic House in Broomfield Road closed in March 2012. It relocated to Hemel Hempstead to facilitate better transport links for its staff. [ 53 ] On 14 March 2014 the Britvic Westway factory closed for full frankincense ending the caller ‘s 150-year association with the city. [ 54 ]

transport [edit ]

railing [edit ]

The easterly Counties Railway arrived in Chelmsford in 1842, although owing to the geography of the town, three viaducts had to be constructed, the longest of which is the 18-arch Central Park viaduct. The station is at the end of the second viaduct. The third viaduct is at the River Chelmer, Springfield. The stream Chelmsford railway station dates from around 1885.

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Around 14,000 commuters per day travel to London Liverpool Street on Greater Anglia services, making Chelmsford one of the busiest non-terminus stations outside London until 2010, when three early morning services were added from Chelmsford to London and three late evening services terminating at Chelmsford from London. Southbound services operate to London Liverpool Street and northbound services run to Colchester, Ipswich, Clacton-on-Sea, Harwich, Braintree and Norwich via the Great Eastern Main Line. Despite having elevated platforms, the post has full disabled access via a lift on each chopine, ampere well as its step access. Since 2011, a second place has been proposed to serve the modern Beaulieu house developments to the northeast of Chelmsford. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]

bus [edit ]

The current bus terminal in Duke Street opened in March 2007 ( replacing the ageing 1930s bus place ) with shops, apartments and a cover roof for passengers .
Essex County Council Highways & Transportation Department have considered constructing a ‘Bus Rapid Transit System ‘ to be built serving the Beaulieu Park/Springfield Area because of the increasing need for Rapid Transit Plans in Ipswich, Colchester and Southend. Chelmsford has a park & ride service at nearby Sandon, equitable off Junction 18 of the A12. It runs from 7 am to 7 autopsy, Monday to Saturday, with five bus stops around the city ( one near high Chelmer for shopping ), and charges £2.50 per adult and is free for old-age pensioners or people under the age of 16. An adult weekly ticket is £12.50 and Adult monthly £47.00. [ 57 ] It has a capacity of 1,200 cars. Opened in March 2006, it has proved highly successful and is widely used. A second base service known as the Chelmer Valley Park and Ride was opened on the A130/A131 to the north of the city near Little Waltham in April 2011. [ 58 ]

road [edit ]

The A12 trunk road ( between London and Great Yarmouth was primitively built by the Romans to connect London and Colchester, [ 59 ]. It used to pass through the city but the £34.8m nine-mile ( 14 kilometer ) shunt around the east opened in November 1986. It is a very crucial route, linking London and the M25 expressway with the docks at Harwich and Felixstowe, and the East Coast. Despite being ill-famed for frequent congestion, poor people road surfaces and potholes, and accidents, many people move to Chelmsford for it being so well connected by road and track. The A414 trunk road, running between Hemel Hempstead and Maldon, is a main road into the city ( just off the A12 ) and besides links the city to junction 7 of the [ M11 ] expressway in the west, near Harlow. The A130 provides an important yoke down to the A127 and A13, while the A131 passes through smaller towns and villages. The nearest expressway is the M25 London Orbital at J11 of the A12, 14 miles off, near Brentwood. Chelmsford is around 25 to 30 minutes ‘ drive from Stansted Airport ( via A130/A120 ), and London Heathrow, London Gatwick, London City, Luton and Southend airports are all within reach. In the southwest of the city center, the A138 meets the A414 at “The Army and Navy roundabout” which is ill-famed for its dealings congestion .

  • Traffic lights were tried to improve matters in the early 2000s but that scheme was abandoned after a short while however some of the lights where recommissioned for early morning and evening part-time use in 2009.
  • The recently built bus lane on the A1114 Great Baddow Bypass and priority to traffic using it has meant traffic queues approaching the roundabout can now be over 1 mi (1.6 km) long during peak periods.
  • The roundabout is known as “The Army and Navy” even though the public house and music venue from which the junction got its name has long been demolished.
  • Until 2019 the junction had an unusual bi-directional flyover (in a similar manner to the Hogarth Roundabout in Chiswick); being open for city-bound traffic westerly until 2.30 pm each day and then easterly out of the city after 2.30 pm. The Army and Navy roundabout flyover was condemned as unsafe and permanently closed in September 2019 by Essex County Council with demolition works taking place in February/March 2020.[60]
  • Construction of the £32 million replacement A138 ‘Chelmer Viaduct’ road which connects Chelmer Village Way roundabout to the Army and Navy roundabout began in February 2015.[61] The new bridge replaced the previous 1932 built structure which was demolished in 2016.

Since 2 September 2013 to save money and reduce carbon emissions, many streets lights in the Chelmsford district switched over to Essex County Council ‘s part-night street lighting scheme. This involves most street lights being switched off between 1:00 am and 5:00 am [ 62 ] ( Tuesday to Sunday ) with exceptions such as the city center sphere, key road junctions, some pedestrian crossings and known accident sites. [ 63 ] On Monday mornings the switch off is from midnight to 5:00 am .

Future transportation plans [edit ]

Map of road for the proposed newly Chelmsford beltway Proposals for a beltway of Chelmsford connecting the A12 substitute at Boreham ( Junction 19 ) and the A131 were put ahead for public reference by Essex County Council in 2006, the prefer path was announced in March 2007. It comprises the creation of 7.9 km ( 4+15⁄16 security service ) of two-lane double carriageway and junctions connecting to the A12 and A131, it will sever 10 footpaths/bridleways and involve about entirely greenfield construction. [ 64 ] The outline was estimated to cost £138 million in March 2007 [ 64 ] but was increased to an estimated roll of £229 – £262 million in February 2008. [ 65 ] The scheme still requires fund and planning permission with applications timetabled for 2009–2011, a public inquiry timetabled for 2012 and with an estimated construction start date of 2014–2016. [ 66 ] The Chelmsford North Action Group ( NAG ) objects to this dodge, stating that Chelmsford was to “ be engulfed by huge motorways connecting the Channel Ports, via a new Lower Thames Crossing, A130, on to Stansted, M11 and A14 ”. [ 67 ] A second new Park and Ride scheme on the A130 near Little Waltham in accession to that at Sandon began construction in March 2010 at a price of £7.9 million. [ 68 ] There has been criticism of the park and ride as some worry it would be ineffective to provide a service to the nearby Broomfield Hospital from the new locate. [ 69 ] The Little Waltham Park and Ride opened in April 2011. A new second base railway station called Chelmsford Beaulieu for the city was announced in September 2009 to be built near the A12 Boreham Interchange, however as of 2021 the much delayed project has still not begun construction. [ 70 ]

renovation [edit ]

A major newly development on the web site of the previous bus post was completed in 2007 which contains a newly Bus Station, shops and luxury apartments. The lower level apartments of this development and the Bus Station area is known as “ Marconi Plaza ” while the upper flat apartments are known as the “ Kings Tower ”. The Bus Station and shops were opened in January 2007 while the rest of the development was cook in September 2007. A new housing development locate near Beaulieu Park towards the north of the city is presently under construction. It will be an urban village containing around 3,500 homes. The Public House “ The Army and Navy ” from which the circuitous gets its diagnose was demolished in March 2007. It was replaced by a Travelodge Hotel, a Frankie & Benny ‘s Restaurant, a bed store and private apartments. Building work started at the web site in October 2007 and the project was completed in December 2008. One of Chelmsford ‘s two joint-tallest buildings, [ 71 ] Melbourne Court ( now renamed Parkside Court ) in Melbourne Avenue, has received an £8,000,000 investment for extensive renovation and to create a fresh Neighbourhood Centre. This was completed early in 2009. recently, plans were revealed for ‘Waterside ‘, a large development of shops, bars and restaurants on the banks of the River Chelmer on derelict land near the Essex Records Office at the end of Wharf Road. If this development goes ahead, High Bridge Road connecting Parkway and Springfield Road would be demolished along with the adjacent gasometers and a newfangled central link road would be built. The erstwhile Anglia Ruskin University central campus off Park Road was demolished in January/February 2010 and has been redeveloped by social house provider Genesis as a assorted function development of caparison for social rent, aboard other new house for individual sale and several retail units, new squares, streets and plaza. The new development has been given the name ‘ City Park West ‘. eminent Chelmer Shopping Centre underwent a refit during 2008/2009 with new deck, lighting with a modern front man entrance and logo re-brand. promote work is being carried out in the shop centre ; an old parcel was demolished in spring 2011. The work was completed in early 2012. In January 2011, John Lewis announced in concert with development partner Aquila House Holdings that it was to anchor a brand new 119,000-square-foot ( 11,100 m2 ) department memory as separate of a 300,000-square-foot ( 28,000 m2 ) retail development at Bond Street. The site opened in September 2016 .

Places of sake [edit ]

Parkside Court Great Baddow, Chain Home Tower Hylands House The river Can in the city center with separate of the 1960s flood prevention scheme clearly visible Hylands House and Park just to the west of the city are a country house and park, saved from delinquency and purchased by the local anesthetic council in 1966 after the death of the last individual owner and now open to the public. Dating from 1730, the house was much damaged by arouse and vandalism by the clock time of the sale, but has since been wholly restored by Chelmsford City Council and is now available for weddings and other private hires including conferences. The 574 acres ( 232 hectares ) park was landscaped by Humphry Repton has hosted a wide range of community events, including the annual music festival V Festival. The 21st World Scout Jamboree 2007 was besides held at Hylands Park from 27 July to 8 August 2007. Within the grounds which comprise forest, rolling grassland and lakes is a big children ‘s play area with adjoining cable car parking. Chelmsford Museum in Oaklands Park, off Moulsham Street, is a local history and industrial heritage museum which besides incorporates the Essex Regiment Museum. A major £5 million extension and renovation scheme opened in January 2010 and the museum now includes exhibits and synergistic displays focusing on Crompton, Marconi, and Hoffmann, angstrom well as illustrating the development of the town and city from prehistory up to mod times. [ 72 ] Further development in 2019 upgraded the museum to include new visitor facilities a well as new exhibits from the Saxon burying web site at Broomfield. A second web site at Sandford Mill – Chelmsford ‘s early waterworks – displays farther exhibits from Chelmsford ‘s telecommunications, electrical engineer and roll bearings industries. [ 73 ] The Shire Hall is situated at the acme of the High Street. Opened in July 1791 and built by local anesthetic architect and Essex county surveyor John Johnson, it features a Portland Stone façade. One of the oldest and most outstanding buildings in Chelmsford, it was built as a courthouse and there has been a motor hotel on the locate since at least 1199. however this ultimately came to an end on 2 April 2012 with the opening of a new magistrates ‘ woo a short distance away in New Street. [ 74 ] Chelmsford Cathedral, which is located directly behind the Shire Hall, is one of the oldest buildings in the city. originally called “ St Mary ‘s church ”, it became a cathedral when the Diocese of Chelmsford for the Bishop of Chelmsford was created in 1914. It is officially the second little in England behind Derby Cathedral. [ 75 ] Chelmsford Prison is a male prison and Young Offenders Institution, constructed in 1830. The 1979 movie extra of the television series Porridge with Ronnie Barker was filmed largely on placement at Chelmsford Prison, while it was closed for repairs after a displace. The 1842 constructed, 18-arch victorian railway viaduct ( that spans the river Can in Central Park ) is one of three railway viaducts in the city that carry the Great Eastern Main Line. The viaduct was constructed by the Eastern Counties Railway and opened for passenger traffic on 29 March 1843. [ 76 ] Chelmsford ‘s two tall buildings are :

  • Parkside Court, built in 1962 as Melbourne Court in Melbourne Avenue, sometimes locally known as “Melbourne flats”, and
  • the 13-floor “Kings Tower” in Duke Street, completed in 2007.

They contribution the lapp stature of 141.04 feet ( 42.99 m ). The tallest structure by far in the borough is the former Chain Home radar loom in Great Baddow which rises to 360 foot ( 110 thousand ). The tugboat was constructed in 1937 and in the first place stood at the greenwich village of Canewdon ‘s early RAF base ( 1936–1970 ). [ 77 ] however in 1956 it was relocated to Great Baddow. [ 78 ] It is the only Chain Home tugboat calm in its original unmodified form in the United Kingdom and is a highly visible landmark throughout the surrounding area. The tugboat was last given Grade II listed building status in October 2019 by Historic England. [ 78 ]

Geography and climate [edit ]

geology [edit ]

From over 600,000 years ago, during the Pleistocene frost long time, until the anglian Stage around 478,000 to 424,000 years ago, the early River Thames flowed through the area where Chelmsford now stands, from Harlow to Colchester, before crossing what is now the North Sea to become a conducive of the Rhine. consequently, gravel deposits are frequently found in the area and stream and former gravel pits in the zone are common. Chelmsford has two rivers, the River Can and the River Chelmer. Although much confused to be the lapp river in the city concentrate, they are quite break until they join together towards the east of the city to form the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation which heads out towards Maldon before flowing into tidal waters at the Blackwater Estuary. In the other direction, the Chelmer comes from the north from its source near Thaxted while the Can comes from the West from Writtle where it separates from the River Wid. up to the 1960s, these rivers were extremely prone to flooding the city centre area including two black floods in August 1888 ( known locally as ‘The Great Flood ‘ ) and in September 1958 ( which besides ill affected nearby Wickford ) causing far-flung damage. Flood prevention schemes in the 1960s on both rivers have largely prevented any further incidents here although the natural floodplains to the north and east such as The ‘Baddow Meads ‘ and The ‘Chelmer Valley ‘ stay to see flooding on a regular basis specially after prolonged heavy rain .

climate [edit ]

As with the large majority of the UK, Chelmsford has a temperate oceanic climate ( Cfb in the Köppen climate classification, however due to the proximity to continental Europe, Chelmsford enjoys warmly summers and cool but not cold winters, with a relatively pin down annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature. With Chelmsford in the southeast of England, the city enjoys a warm climate than most of the United Kingdom ; it is besides one of the driest areas in the state. The nearest meet office weather place is located in Writtle which is 2 miles ( 3 kilometres ) west of the city center. The criminal record high temperature in Chelmsford was on 25 July 2019 when 37.7 °C ( 99.9 °F ) was recorded. Another high temperature of note was on 10 August 2003 during the commemorate breaking european heat wave when 35.7 °C ( 96.3 °F ) was recorded. The coldest temperature recorded in Chelmsford was −20.6 °C ( −5.1 °F ) on 29 January 1947. A broken of −18.0 °C ( −0.4 °F ) was besides recorded during December 1981. More recently the temperature fell to −13.0 °C ( 8.6 °F ) on 20 December 2010. frost is coarse and is recorded on an average of 53 nights of the year. Rainfall averages 591.8 millimeter a year, with day by day totals of over 1 mm falling on 108.1 days of the year. Thunderstorms are rare and largely occur during July and August. All averages refer to the 30-year observation period 1981–2010. Chelmsford was struck by a F1/F2 tornado on 23 November 1981 as separate of the record-breaking nationally United Kingdom tornado outbreak on that sidereal day causing some price in the city kernel. [ 79 ]

Climate data for Writtle[a], elevation: 32 m (105 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1960–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.1
Average high °C (°F) 7.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
Record low °C (°F) −20.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53.2
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 10.8 8.6 9.2 9.2 8.7 8.5 7.3 7.7 7.8 10.1 9.9 10.2 108.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.0 76.1 112.4 165.7 196.6 198.2 209.9 204.0 147.4 113.9 68.7 47.4 1,598.2
Source 1: Met Office[80]
Source 2: KNMI[81]

education [edit ]

Chelmsford has a wide range of educational institutions. Higher department of education in the city is provided at one campus of Anglia Ruskin University ( once called Anglia Polytechnic ) and Writtle University College. Chelmsford College is the main supplier of far education in the city. sixth form colleges are besides attached to many of the secondary schools listed below. secondary school educational establishments in Chelmsford admit :
Chelmsford besides includes many chief schools, including The Bishop ‘s C of E & R C Primary School, one of the few joint Anglican and Roman Catholic primary schools in the country [ 83 ]

club and culture [edit ]

Media [edit ]

Chelmsford is referred to as the Birthplace of Radio .

  • Chelmsford Community Radio (CCR) broadcasts to the City on 104.4FM. It started out in 2013 as an internet only station and was granted an FM Licence in 2015. The FM frequency launched in 2017. The station offers a wide range of shows catering for many different tastes as well as offering a platform for many local bands, charities, community groups and businesses.
  • Chelmsford was home to local radio station Chelmsford Radio. The station moved to studios in Southend-on-Sea having vacated its Heybridge premises on 12 January 2009. The station was originally situated in Chelmsford city centre in Cater House until November 2006. This station was previously known as Dream 107.7 until February, and before that, 107.7 Chelmer FM up to 2002. The station began broadcasting on 18 October 1998. It is the local station for mid-Essex. Adventure Radio have owned this station since 2008, where it was purchased from Tindle Radio Ltd. As of 19 February 2015, Chelmsford and Southend Radio re-branded and merged to form Radio Essex,[84]
  • Chelmsford also has a local opt-out of Heart FM. Heart Essex (previously Essex FM up to June 2009) has been on air since 12 September 1981 and has been owned by Global Radio since 2007. It moved to studios in Glebe Road in late 2004, having previously been based in Southend-on-Sea. In May 2009, the station was rebranded to The Heart of Essex, Essex FM. In June 2009, the popular Essex FM née Essex Radio name brand was dropped after 28 years. On 3 June 2019 Heart Essex was closed as part of wider changes to the Heart network. It was replaced by Heart East with programs coming from studios in London and Milton Keynes. The Chelmsford studio was closed.[85]
  • BBC Essex has been on air since 5 November 1986 and its studios are based in New London Road.
  • There is a local Award-winning, Hospital Radio Station based out of Broomfield Hospital, known as Hospital Radio Chelmsford, the station has been running since 1964 and is supported by volunteers. The station broadcasts 24 hours for patients at the hospital but can also be listened to online and via the app.

Until their closure in the mid-2000s Anglia Television /ITV Anglia had offices located in Chelmsford city center. Chelmsford is served by London and East Anglia regional variations of the BBC and ITV1. Chelmsford besides has its own Film Festival which was initially set up in 2017 by a few filmmakers and business owners who live in the Chelmsford area. This takes space predominantly at the Everyman Cinema in Chelmsford. Publications based in Chelmsford include :

  • the Essex Chronicle, which was founded as the Chelmsford Chronicle in 1764. The weekly Essex Chronicle newspaper is the longest in continuous publication in the country.[ citation needed] Until the closure of the printing plant in 2002, the paper was also printed in the town. It is now printed on presses by the Reach plc Group which now owns the paper.
  • Chelmsford Weekly News is a free local paper which ceased production in June 2017.
  • a popular publication is the free “Edge” magazine, a primarily volunteer effort aimed at older Chelmsfordians.
  • The Face of Chelmsford is a monthly magazine delivered to 12,500 homes in Chelmsford that has now become a digital publication updated daily.
  • City Life is a newspaper produced by Chelmsford City Council that is distributed throughout the area.

religion [edit ]

Chelmsford Cathedral is the second smallest cathedral in England after Derby Cathedral. [ 86 ] It was built in the 15th and early 16th centuries, when it was the parish church of the golden chivalric town. The Diocese of Chelmsford was established in 1914 from character of the Diocese of St Albans. It covers all of Essex and a lot of East London. Chelmsford is besides situated in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood and the two dioceses are immediately uniquely ( at least within England ) coextensive. With the coming of the Reformation the Catholic community of Chelmsford was subjected to the anti-Catholic laws and Chelmsford was the site of the death of a Catholic martyr, Saint John Payne. In the nineteenth hundred, native Catholics resurfaced and immigrants helped to build up the Catholic community. There are now three Catholic churches within Chelmsford along with a Norbertine canonry situated on New London Road ; St. Philip ‘s Priory and one of the largest catholic secret board schools in the state, New Hall School. other denominations are besides represented, the Baptists, Jehovah ‘s Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Presbyterians, and the United Reformed Church all have places of idolize within the city. For the local Muslim community, the majority of which are Bengali and Pakistani, the Main Jamia Masjid mosque is located on Moulsham Street at the articulation with Parkway. [ 87 ] [ 88 ]

sport [edit ]

Essex County Cricket Club is one of the 18 excellent county clubs that make up the English domestic cricket structure, representing the county of Essex. The club is based at the County Ground in New Writtle Street close up to the city center. Chelmsford City Football Club plays in the National League South. The club ‘s home grind is at the Chelmsford Sport and Athletics Centre, Melbourne Park, which it shares with Chelmsford Athletic Club. Chelmsford is one of the largest settlements in England without a Football League team. The city is besides home to the Chelmsford Sunday League, of which there are five divisions consisting of teams from around the area. The former ground of the club [ which? ] the New Writtle Street Stadium besides hosted greyhound race which was one of two venues to do so. The early was at Springfield on local anesthetic farmland on Pump Lane corner which took position during April 1949. [ clarification needed ] The race at both was mugwump ( not affiliated to the sports governing body the National Greyhound Racing Club ) and they were known as beat tracks, which was the dub given to independent tracks. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] The Chelmsford Rugby Football Club was established in 1920 and for the survive 40 years has been playing rugby at Coronation Park in Timpsons Lane. As of 2016 the club has over 300 members and fields up to five aged teams each week. The club as of 2016 plays in the London 1 North league, the one-sixth tier of English rugby. In addition to the aged teams, there are 150 youth members providing teams from under 6 ‘s to under 17 ‘s. Chelmsford Hockey Club is a men ‘s and ladies ‘ field ice hockey club based in the city. It fields eight men ‘s teams and five ladies ‘ teams every weekend. [ citation needed ] The Ladies ‘ 1st XI compete in the English Hockey League Conference East as of July 2016. Chelmsford Swimming Club has been running for over 100 years and is located in the Riverside Ice and Leisure building in Chelmsford. [ 91 ] besides based in the same build are the Chelmsford Chieftains, an ice ice hockey team that plays in the English National Ice Hockey League. The clubhouse promotes the use of junior players and local players from the Chelmsford and Essex area. team Essex Volleyball Club is Chelmsford ‘s national league volleyball club. It has four teams, which play in Volleyball England ‘s national volleyball league. Its men ‘s 1st team presently competes in the top part in the country, the Super 8s, while the women ‘s 1st team competes one tier below the men. The club has a strong junior broadcast and trains in The Boswells School in Chelmsford. horse racing has been run at two separate venues using the identify Chelmsford, neither actually in the city center itself. The sport primitively took position at Chelmsford Racecourse, at Galleywood, from the eighteenth century until its closure in 1935. [ 92 ] A new racetrack was established at Great Leighs in 2008 and subsequently changed its name to Chelmsford City Racecourse. [ 93 ] Since 2014 the city has held a marathon. Starting and ending in the city center, the marathon takes in the city itself and the encompassing environs. The 2014 edition had over 1000 participants. [ 94 ] The Chelmsford campus of Anglia Ruskin University besides has many sports teams and facilities .

noteworthy people born in Chelmsford [edit ]

Musicians [edit ]

Sportspeople [edit ]

Actors [edit ]

Artists [edit ]

other [edit ]

Nearest places [edit ]

Twin towns [edit ]

Chelmsford ‘s official twin towns are : [ 121 ] [ 122 ]
The city besides has a baby city :

further interpretation [edit ]

  • Foreman, Stephen: Hylands – the story of an Essex country house and its owners (Ian Henry Publications, 1999)
  • Lee, Janet Olivia: Chelmsford – Birthplace of Radio (Chelmsford Borough Council, 2001)
  • Lowen, Ceri: Hylands House – a brief history and guide (Chelmsford Borough Council, 2005)
  • Wander, Tim: 2MT Writtle – The birth of British Broadcasting (Capella Publications, 1988)
  • Weller-Lewis, Hugh: Chelmsford Borough Guide (Macmillan, 1995)
  • Wickenden, Nick: A Celebration of Chelmsford (Chelmsford Borough Council, 1999)
  • A town, its people and its past (Chelmsford Record Office, 1988)
  • Grieve, Hilda: The Sleepers and the Shadows Volume 2 Chelmsford: a town, its people and its past (Chelmsford Record Office, 1994)
  • Begent, Andrew: Chelmsford At War (Ian Henry Publications Ltd, 1999)
  • Torry, Gilbert: Chelmsford through the ages (East Anglian Magazine Ltd, 1977)
  • John Alec Baker: The Peregrine, The Hill of Summer and Diaries (Collins, 2011)

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ Weather station is located 2 miles ( 3 kilometer ) from the Chelmsford city center .

References [edit ]