Current Local Time in Locations in England with Links for More Information ( 173 Locations )
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Reading: Time in England, United Kingdom
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|Canterbury||Tue 8:41 am||King’s Lynn||Tue 8:41 am||Sudbury
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|Crawley||Tue 8:41 am||Mansfield||Tue 8:41 am||West Bromwich||Tue 8:41 am|
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|Enfield||Tue 8:41 am||Oldham||Tue 8:41 am||Yeovil||Tue 8:41 am|
|Epsom||Tue 8:41 am||Oxford
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The Scottish League Cup ( besides known as the Premier Sports Cup for sponsorship reasons ) is a football competition open to all scots Professional Football League ( SPFL ) club. first held in 1946–47, it is the oldest national League Cup in being. The rival had a true smasher format but became a group and hard rival from 2016–17.
Reading: Scottish League Cup – Wikipedia
Rangers are the record holders of the cup, winning 27 times. Celtic are the holders, winning their twentieth title after beating Hibernian 2–1 at Hampden Park on 19 December 2021. The domestic television rights are held by Premier Sports who replaced BT Sport from the 2019–20 season .
format [edit ]
historically, the Scottish League Cup has oscillated between being a straightforward single-elimination hard tournament and having an initial group phase. Since the 2016–17 season, the League Cup has used a group phase format. The format has eight groups of five teams playing each other once in a round-robin format. [ 1 ] The forty teams playing in the group phase dwell of the 38 league clubs who are not participating in UEFA competitions, along with two teams from outside the league. [ 1 ] [ notice 1 ] In the group phase, three points are given for a gain and one point for a draw. If matches are level after ninety minutes, a punishment shoot-out is held with the winning team gaining a bonus point. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The groups are regionalised : there are four groups in the North section, and four in the South section, with three pots for each regional section – clear seeds, second seeds, and unseeded clubs. Each group will consist of one circus tent seed, one second seed, and three unseeded clubs. The eight group winners and three best runner-up build up into the second base round off, where they are joined by the five clubs participating in UEFA competitions. [ 1 ] The tournament then adopts a single-elimination hard format. There are no replays, which means all draw matches are decided by extra prison term and a penalty gunfight, if necessity. The semi-final matches are played on a achromatic ground, determined by the localization and size of supports involved. The final game is traditionally played at Hampden Park in Glasgow, though due to renovations some finals have been played at other venues, such as Celtic Park or Ibrox Stadium. The newly format besides allowed the SPFL to reintroduce the two-weekend winter unwrap in January. Along with the newly designed tournament, a fresh television bargain for it was announced as BT Sport took over rights from BBC Scotland. [ 2 ] In February 2016 the SPFL announced the League Cup final examination would be moved to November. [ 1 ] [ 3 ]
history [edit ]
The cup has its origins in a regional cup competition called the Southern League Cup which was introduced in 1940 when wartime restrictions led to a suspension of the scots Cup. This tournament was largely regional and did not involve all of the teams who comprised the scots Football League anterior to the outbreak of war. The first base official Scottish Football League Cup was contested during the 1946–47 season, when Rangers defeated Aberdeen in the final. [ 4 ] The rival was very democratic with supporters during the first few decades of its universe. The tournament consisted of 8 or 9 groups consisting of 4 or 5 teams. The groups were seeded into 2 sets with the top 16 teams in Division 1 making up the beginning four groups. This guaranteed that 4 ‘top ‘ teams would play 4 ‘lesser ‘ teams in the quarter-finals. extra games when the Premier League was formed and expanded european competitions meant that by the early 1980s, its long-winded format, which involved group rounds played early in the season leading to two-legged knock-out rounds, attracted much criticism. In the mid-1980s the tournament was revamped to a short, one elimination knock-out format with a final meet prior to Christmas, which provided the exhilaration of a cup concluding early in the season. During the 1999–2000 competition, the semi-finals and final examination were moved to the spring to avoid the congestion of fixtures caused by the early rounds of the UEFA clubhouse competitions and Scotland ‘s representatives in Europe were given automatic byes until the third base round of competition. From the 2016–17 edition the League Cup reverted to a group stage format, with single-elimination knock-out in the last 16 onwards. [ 2 ]
former finals [edit ]
The League Cup has been known by unlike names due to sponsorship : [ 5 ]
trophy [edit ]
Since the competition ‘s origin, the winning team has been awarded the three-handled trophy known as the Scottish Football League Cup. however, during the 1980s when Skol laager sponsored the competition, a second gear trophy known as the Skol Cup was awarded a well. After the 1987–88 rival when Rangers won their third Skol Cup, they were given the trophy permanently and a new Skol Cup with a slenderly unlike design was introduced the following season. It was long term Clyde and then Scottish Football League chair John McMahon who donated the trophy that is placid awarded to the winners of the contest to this day. [ 17 ]
Read more: สรุปเหรียญโอลิมปิกฤดูร้อน 2016 – วิกิพีเดีย
european qualification [edit ]
Until 1995, the winners of the Scottish League Cup were granted a seat in the UEFA Cup, although this privilege was rarely invoked as the winning teams normally qualified for Europe by some other means such as winning the League Championship or scottish Cup. The most late case was Raith Rovers who represented Scotland in the 1995–96 UEFA Cup after winning the League Cup the former season as a First Division club. This prerogative has since been discontinued .
performance by golf club [edit ]
Media coverage [edit ]
scottish League Cup matches are shown live by Premier Sports in the United Kingdom and Ireland. [ 2 ] [ 16 ] [ 19 ] In Australia, the Scottish League Cup is broadcast by beIN Sports. The 2009 Scottish League Cup Final was shown live on SBS due to a fixture clash on previous hosts ‘ Setanta groove. [ 2 ] In sub-saharan Africa, the Scottish League Cup matches are shown live by ESPN
list of broadcasters [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
References [edit ]
Who have Man Utd been linked with?
manchester United are preparing a summer bid for West Ham and England midfielder Declan Rice but are expected to need to spend £100m to secure his signature ( The Sun, January 3 ) ; West Ham ‘s disappointing December has given United a major boost in their hopes of signing £100m-rated Rice ( The Sun, January 2 )
United target Julian Alvarez ‘s agent is reportedly on his way to the United Kingdom for a transplant meet ( Daily Express, January 3 ) ; United have been linked with a move to sign Alvarez from River Plate ( Daily Express, December 22 ).
Barcelona are reportedly looking to prise Anthony Martial from United by offering Ousmane Dembele in a barter cover ( The Sun, January 3 ). United and Liverpool are concern in Leeds child Charlie Cresswell ( Daily Mirror, January 3 ). Jose Mourinho is out to hijack Manchester United ‘s move for Marseille midfielder Boubacar Kamar a and tempt him to join Roma rather ( The Sun, January 2 ) ; United are in promote talks to sign Marseille midfielder Kamara ( Sunday Express, December 18 ) ; United are reportedly considering a January move for Kamara ( Daily Star, December 14 ) .
Manchester United are quick to pay the £16.8m let go of article to sign River Plate’s Argentina striker Julian Alvarez in January, having edged ahead of Bayern Munich, Barcelona, Real Madrid and Inter Milan in the race for the 21-year-old. ( Sport, January 1 ) manchester United have a contingency plan in place in sheath Edinson Cavani leaves future calendar month, with the club reportedly lining up a swoop for Mauro Icardi ( Daily Mail, December 30 ). Interim Manchester United boss Ralf Rangnick is targeting four german wonderkids for potential transfers – Bayer Leverkusen ‘s Florian Wirtz, Borussia Monchengladbach ‘s Luca Netz, RB Leipzig ‘s Eric Martel and Bochum ‘s Armel Bella-Kotchap ( The Sun, December 27 ). Manchester United will have to compete with Chelsea for Wolves star Ruben Neves in January ( The Sun, December 27 ) .
Could RB Leipzig ‘s Tyler Adams be on his manner to Man Utd ?
Chris Armas ‘s arrival at United could give the golf club a promote in their pursuit of RB Leipzig star Tyler Adams after they worked together for three years at New York Red Bulls ( Daily Mail, December 24 ). United foreman Ralf Rangnick has reportedly spoken to Erling Haaland’s founder Alf-Inge as he pushes to sign the Borussia Dortmund gunman ( casual Mail, December 22 ) ; very Madrid are serious contenders to beat Manchester City and Manchester United United in the race for ace Haaland ( The Sun, December 21 ) ; United target Haaland appeared to signal his Borussia Dortmund die by waving adieu to fans ( The Sun, December 20 ) ; United are presently reported to be the “ only serious bidder ” for Haaland but have been told they must qualify for the Champions League to have a find of signing him adjacent summer ( The Sun, December 16 ) ;
Erling Haaland has been heavily linked with a move aside from Dortmund
Ralf Rangnick will reportedly be given a huge £8.5m bonus if he convinces Haaland to join United ( Daily Express, December 2 ) ; Rangnick could receive up to £100m in January to strengthen his team ( Daily Mirror, December 2 ). United believe Ralf Rangnick ‘s at hand arrival at Old Trafford will give them an edge in the race to sign Haaland next summer ( The Sun, November 28 ). Sergej Milinkovic-Savic is ‘almost certain ‘ to leave Lazio by the summer, amid his rift with Maurizio Sarri, having been previously linked with the likes of Manchester United, Liverpool and Real Madrid ( The Sun, December 21 ) .
Marseille midfielder Boubacar Kamara is reportedly wanted by Man Utd
United aim Amadou Haidara has revealed he was a athletic supporter of the Premier League baseball club when growing up ( daily Mail, December 16 ) ; Ralf Rangnick is keen on bringing RB Leipzig midfielder Haidara to Old Trafford and the Bundesliga side are concerned about a publish clause in his abridge ( Daily Mirror, December 10 ) ; Haidara will become Ralf Rangnick ‘s first base signing next month – if United pay his £32m spill clause immediately ( Sun, December 5 ) .
Manchester United forward Anthony Martial could be on his way out of Old Trafford
Barcelona are reportedly looking to prise Anthony Martial from United by offering Ousmane Dembele in a barter deal ( The Sun, January 3 ) ; Sevilla have had an offer to sign Martial on lend for the remainder of the season rejected by Manchester United ( Sky Sports, December 28 ) ; United have opened the door for Martial to leave Old Trafford – but only if the bargain is right for the club ( casual Mail, December 27 ) ; soldierly held talks over his future with Ralf Rangnick on Wednesday as the France striker eyes a motivate aside from Manchester United future calendar month ( Daily Telegraph, December 23 ) ; Martial ‘s preference is to join Sevilla if he is to leave Manchester United adjacent month ( Sky Sports, December 21 ). Newcastle are plotting a arresting lend move for Manchester United hitter Martial as they look to ease relegation worries ( Daily Mirror, December 20 ) .
The latest players linked with a Man Utd exit
Who will Ralf Rangnick expression to sign in the January transfer window for Man Utd ?
Jose Mourinho is matter to in bringing United child Charlie Wellens to Roma ( The Sun, January 3 ) ; Mourinho is reportedly bang-up on signing Wellens ( Daily Star, December 28 ). Ethan Laird is set to be loaned out again by United after he was recalled from a irregular spell with Swansea City ( Daily Mirror, January 3 ). Napoli are said to have reached a verbal agreement with Manchester United over a loanword deal for defender Axel Tuanzebe ( Daily Mail, January 2 ) ; Napoli want to sign Tuanzebe – despite the fact the United defender is presently on lend at Aston Villa ( The Sun, December 30 ). Manchester United midfielder Donny van de Beek might be stuck at Old Trafford because of a row between his previous agent, who he fired back in October, and current representative ( Daily Mirror, January 2 ) Tottenham coach Antonio Conte is exquisite on launching a move for out-of-favour Manchester United goalkeeper Dean Henderson ( Daily Express, December 30 ) ; Henderson is ready to leave United and could do sol in January as rumor about interest from dutch giants Ajax continue to swirl ( The Sun, December 17 ) ; United ace Dean Henderson could be set for another lend spell aside from the club with Ajax matter to in a move for the 24-year-old ( Daily Star, December 8 ) .
Paul Pogba ‘s contract at Manchester United is ascribable to expire adjacent summer
manchester United are not presently negotiating a January Paul Pogba sale, according to reports ( The Sun, December 28 ) ; Xavi has told his Barcelona bosses not to pursue a summer move for Pogba after meeting with his agent Mino Raiola ( Daily Mail, December 17 ) ; United are looking at midfield options in the transfer market as Pogba ‘s future at Old Trafford is changeable with six months left on his contract ( Daily Telegraph, December 15 ) ; Barcelona president of the united states Joan Laporta reportedly met up with super agent Mino Raiola amid rumours linking the spanish giants with Erling Haaland and Pogba ( Daily Mail, December 14 ) ; Ralf Rangnick says it is not his job to convince Pogba or any other player to stay at United ( Sky Sports, December 11 ) ; real Madrid are no long considering a summer swoop for Pogba ( Marca, November 28 ). Edinson Cavani could be on his way to Brazil with Corinthians concern in the faze United hitter ( daily Mail, December 24 ) ; United will fight to keep Cavani at Old Trafford next calendar month amid interest from Barcelona ( The Sun, December 21 ) ; Cavani lone wants to join Barcelona on a short-run compress, according to reports ( Daily Express, December 20 ) ; Cavani ‘s brother has dropped a trace that the striker could be looking to leave United in the about future ( daily Mail, December 14 ) ; Cavani wants to leave United and join Barcelona when his contract expires future summer ( The Times, December 3 ) ; Cavani is set to lead a six-man exodus at United as Ralf Rangnick begins his reign at Old Trafford ( Mirror, December 3 ). Barcelona have reportedly offered Philippe Coutinho to United in the hope of signing Anthony Martial and Edinson Cavani ( The Sun, December 1 ) ; Martial has emerged as a January target for Barcelona as they look to add to their attack options for the second half of the season ( Daily Mirror, November 29 ). Newcastle are targeting four english stars, including United advancing Lingard, as share of their January team rebuild ( Daily Express, December 3 ) ; Lingard ‘s potential move to West Ham in January has moved one step nearer after David Moyes admitted he needs to strengthen his attacking options ( The Sun, December 2 ) ; Lingard could re-open previously-collapsed talks over a new condense at Old Trafford if Rangnick makes more use of him than previous United boss Ole Gunnar Solskjaer ( Daily Telegraph, November 28 ). Manchester United defender Phil Jones is a likely prey for Benfica in January ( Daily Mail, December 22 ). Ralf Rangnick has reportedly put a sudden block on Jose Mourinho ‘s plan to reunite with Diogo Dalot at Roma ( Daily Mirror, December 22 ). Jesse Lingard is expected to see out the remainder of the season at United before leaving the golf club on a spare transportation in the summer ( Daily Telegraph, December 21 ) ; veridical Madrid are pondering making an propose to Lingard when he can speak to foreign clubs about a pre-contract agreement in January, leaving United fearing they will lose him for nothing ( Daily Express, December 4 ). Six United first-team players are seeking an exit from Old Trafford in January ( Sunday Express, December 18 ). Barcelona want to sign United advancing Marcus Rashford as a replacement for Sergio Aguero ( Sunday Express, December 18 ). Juan Mata is increasingly keen to leave United, so he can join spanish giants Barcelona ( Daily Star Sunday, December 18 ). Arsenal are interested in United hitter Mason Greenwood, along with Barcelona and Juventus, according to a report in Spain ( Daily Mirror, December 17 ). Andreas Pereira has become the latest United player to go public with their desire to leave Old Trafford on a permanent basis ( Daily Mirror, December 13 ). Ralf Rangnick has told United ‘s fringe players ‘prove to me you have a future here ‘ ( The Sun, December 8 ). United star Alex Telles is being tracked by both Inter and AC Milan ( Sun, December 3 ). Donny van de Beek and Dean Henderson could leave United in January as part of a Ralf Rangnick rebuild ( Daily Telegraph, November 28 ) .
Man Utd contract news
Anthony Elanga is set for a raw hand at United after impressing Ralf Rangnick ( Daily Telegraph, December 17 ) .
Confirmed Man Utd signings
Confirmed Man Utd departures
Who will be on the move in January ? The January transfer window opens on Saturday January 1, 2022 and closes at 11pm on Monday January 31. Keep up-to-date with all the latest transfer news and rumor in our dedicate Transfer Centre blog on Sky Sports ‘ digital platforms. You can besides catch up with the ins, outs and analysis on Sky Sports News.
The cabaret announced the move barely hours after Juventus head coach Massimiliano Allegri revealed that Ronaldo told him he would not be playing for Juventus again. The actor cleaned out his locker and said farewell to his teammates on Friday, before reportedly hopping on a plane to Portugal.
And just like that, with a year remaining on his contract at Juventus, the 36-year-old Ronaldo will be returning to the cabaret where he became a worldly concern star during six seasons from 2003 through 2009. It ‘s a stun turn of events given that earlier in the same day it was believed that Manchester City was silent in pole position to sign the Portuguese star topology, only for the Red Devils to beat them to it. And merely a workweek before, it sounded like he would be seeing out his contract at Juventus .
Why did Ronaldo leave Juventus?
Juventus is once again the favored to win the italian league title in the season that precisely started and the club is besides expected to make a trench run in the UEFA Champions League contest. So why would Ronaldo leave one of the most storied clubs in Europe ?
Getty Images hypertext transfer protocol : //images.daznservices.com/di/library/sporting_news/c3/6e/cristiano-ronaldo-juventus-celebration-2020-2021_vyefs095n0mb1j6ywo2sv12qm.jpg ? t=-2008404101 & w=500 & quality=80 Although Ronaldo has delivered in a big way since arriving at Juventus — both on and off the field — his deviation works out for both the actor and cabaret. Why a move made sense for Ronaldo: Although Juventus has elite talent, it ’ second clear that the baseball club is not on the lapp level as Chelsea, Manchester City, Paris Saint-Germain and Bayern Munich in the race to win the UEFA Champions League. Ronaldo is a five-time Champions League winner and with two more titles he would set the all-time record for european clubhouse championships for a musician. At 134 goals and count, he already has the most goals of any musician in the history of the competition. Ronaldo cares about his stigmatize and bequest and he wants to go down as the greatest of all clock. If he can spend the next two or three seasons with a team that can help him win the bad trophy and outshine Messi and PSG, he could so far shape the narrative about how he will be remembered. It wasn ’ thyroxine going to happen at Juventus. MORE: UEFA Champions League group draw results The Juventus perspective: Ronaldo is a goal-scoring car and he was the lead scorer in Serie A last season ( 29 goals ). His 101 goals in 134 games for Juve — the fastest player to 100 goals in club history — helped Juventus win all three domestic titles during his time at the clubhouse. But the Turin-based side didn ’ t spend $ 120 million to acquire Ronaldo in 2018 to win in Italy. The Bianconeri were hoping Ronaldo would get them over the bulge and help them win their first UEFA Champions League entitle since 1996. It hasn ’ thyroxine happened — three different coaches in three seasons did not help — and Juventus suffered shock absorber smasher round exits in each of his three seasons, never reaching the semifinals. Reports suggested that Ronaldo took the Round of 16 elimination to Porto in March particularly hard, and less than six months subsequently he ’ south on his means out. Getty Images hypertext transfer protocol : //images.daznservices.com/di/library/sporting_news/1d/77/cristiano-ronaldo-juventus-champions-league-2021_u9osjnnc84cj1p6elfdyxb2xg.jpg ? t=-2008329341 & w=500 & quality=80
Read more: 2015–16 Liverpool F.C. season – Wikipedia
There are besides off-field considerations. Given the gross challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, an estimate $ 235 million budget deficit this season, and Ronaldo ’ s $ 100 million-a-year price to the club between his wage and the amortization of his transfer fee, moving on besides makes feel from a fiscal point of view. The Ronaldo skill in 2018 no doubt helped elevate the Juventus sword : The cabaret has a higher external profile, double the sociable followers, and it leveraged Ronaldo for meaning increases in revenues and partnerships. But the pandemic changed the fiscal expectation for the club, and on the plain Juventus is resetting and going younger. The time for a Ronaldo transfer worked across the board. here was Ronaldo ‘s Instagram farewell message to fans :
Ronaldo rejoins Manchester United
There were early indications that a summer move was a real hypothesis since before Euro 2021. That ‘s when reports began to surface about Juventus needing to transfer Ronaldo to balance the budgets, there were images of moving trucks transporting his cars away from his home in Turin, and there was besides the Instagram post that truly felt like a adieu to Italy and Juve fans. As the summer weeks went by, newly rumors surfaced of potential interest from Real Madrid and Paris Saint-Germain, depending on how the dominoes fell with the potential transfer of young french headliner Kylian Mbappe. Ronaldo ’ randomness indignant Instagram post in reaction to all that transfer chatter conspicuously left out note of his committedness to spending his final examination season with Juventus. But on the day of the clubhouse ’ randomness first italian Serie A meet of the new season, Juventus administration and its head coach indicated that Ronaldo was n’t going anywhere, apparently putting an end to the drama. Juve head coach Allegri said Ronaldo told him at that time that he was staying. But then “ the transfer commercialize happened, ” as Allegri put it. “ The situation changed and we need to accept it. ” Most believed that change was Manchester City missing out on No. 1 forward target Harry Kane, who opted to stay at Tottenham Hotspur this summer. Man City was linked with Ronaldo in an apparent undertake to fill the center forward character that Kane would have occupied. The reigning english champions managed by Pep Guardiola have frequently operated without a true central striker, with a host of attackers filling the character last season and midfielders besides picking up the goal-scoring slump. Ronaldo would have proven an interest burst with the number of scoring chances that Manchester City generates. And Man City, a Champions League finalist in 2021, is hungry to win its first european title. So the ambitions would have lined up. But it ‘s not a move that would have sat well with Manchester United supporters and the club came out of the nowhere to strike a bargain to bring him back to Old Trafford. Ronaldo became a ball-shaped ace and Manchester United icon during his six seasons at the clubhouse. Former teammate and current Man United promontory coach Ole Gunnar Solskjaer talked about his clubhouse ‘s interest curtly before the official confirmation. “ He is a caption of this club, the greatest player of all clock time if you ask me, ” Solskjaer told media Aug. 27 in the wake of the news that Ronaldo was leaving Juventus. “ He knows what we feel about him. If he was always going to move away from Juventus, he knows we ‘re here. ” Getty Images hypertext transfer protocol : //images.daznservices.com/di/library/sporting_news/81/ce/cristiano-ronaldo-manchester-united-2004_f1q5h5oqhfnb11r44pbhfx4b2.jpg ? t=-2008282133 & w=500 & quality=80
Read more: Chord (music) – Wikipedia
The Red Devils were there : with a $ 33 million transfer tip to add Ronaldo to a team with a leading attack that features Paul Pogba, Bruno Fernandes, Marcus Rashford, Edinson Cavani and up-and-comer Mason Greenwood. The $ 33 million transfer fee will satisfy Juventus, who were reportedly hoping for $ 35 million in order not to lose money on the Ronaldo process. For a soon-to-be 37-year-old Ronaldo, who was in the final examination year of his narrow, it ‘s not a bad conduct for the Italians. And Juventus besides gets his brawny contract off the club ‘s books. It ‘s a act that could be the storybook ending for Ronaldo ‘s european career. Manchester United will besides feature in the 2021-2022 UEFA Champions League, competing in a group that includes Villarreal, Atalanta and BSC Young Boys. With Ronaldo, the Red Devils are immediately a serious rival to win their first Champions League trophy since 2008, when Ronaldo however starred for them. Their last Champions League final came in May 2009, Ronaldo ‘s last season with Manchester United before a transfer to Real Madrid. It remains to be seen whether Ronaldo will be in the Manchester United team a soon as the Aug. 29 trip to Wolves for Matchday 3 of the English Premier League season. It would seem more probably for Ronaldo to wait until after the September international demote to make his debut against Newcastle on September 11 at Old Trafford .
Deportivo Alavés, S.A.D. ( spanish pronunciation : [ depoɾˈtiβo alaˈβes ] ; Sporting Alavés ), normally abbreviated to Alavés, is a spanish football club based in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Founded on 1 July 1920 as Sport Friends Club, it has played in the highest football category of The Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional, La Liga, since the 2016–17 temper.
Reading: Deportivo Alavés – Wikipedia
It is recognized as the one-third most successful team in the Basque Country following athletic Club of Bilbao and Real Sociedad de Futbol of San Sebastián. Its biggest achiever was in 2001 when, in the year of its introduction in european contest, it reached the 2001 UEFA Cup Final, where it played against Liverpool. It was defeated 5–4 by fortunate finish. In 2017, the club reached the final examination of the Copa del Rey, losing out 3–1 to Barcelona. [ 2 ] The team ‘s home kit is blue and white-striped shirt, aristocratic shorts and white socks. It holds home matches at the 19,840-seater Mendizorrotza Stadium [ 3 ] and uses other facilities located in Ibaia dedicated to educate .
history [edit ]
Founded in 1920 the initial name of the club was Sport Friends, but on 23 January 1921 the name was changed to the current one, and this is considered the official initiation date. [ 4 ] Alavés was the foremost club to win promotion from the Segunda División to La Liga in 1929–30, a stint which would last three years. In its first temper in Primera División Alavés finished 8th from 10 teams, just 1 bespeak away from being relegated. [ 5 ] In 1953–54 the club would reach the top league again for a biennial spell. With Roman Galarraga as a coach, the club reached long-awaited promotion to Segunda División in the 1973–74 season. [ 4 ] In June 1983, after having avoided the relegation in the former season, Alavés went down to Segunda División B, where remained until the 1985–86 campaign. [ 6 ] After years of badly facing disappearance which lasted well into the 1990s ( playing in the fourthly grade during the late 1980s ), Alavés ultimately achieved a promotion back into the Segunda División in 1994–95 after two back-to-back years of winning their group in Segunda División B – created as the newly third level in 1977 – but failing in the forwarding play-offs. After winning the Segunda División in 1997–98, [ 7 ] Alavés returned to the top level after a 42-year foramen. Following their return key season in which they escaped relegation by a single point, they achieved two wins against Barcelona in the follow campaign and would qualify for the UEFA Cup for the first time upon finishing one-sixth ( to date, their highest-ever place, coming just 12 years after their lowest-ever : eighth in their group in the fourth horizontal surface ) .
deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as concluding the domestic campaign in one-tenth position, in 2000–01 the Basque club reached the concluding of the UEFA Cup after beating Internazionale, [ 8 ] Rayo Vallecano and 1. FC Kaiserslautern, the latter in a suppression 9–2 aggregate victory. [ 9 ] The final ended in a 4–5 loss against Liverpool, Alavés losing to an “ own- aureate goal “ after taking the match to extra time. The match besides featured two red cards and two forbid goals in supernumerary time in addition to the nine goals which did count, and has been described by some observers as one of the greatest collector’s item games in the competition ‘s history. [ 10 ] Alavés ended 2001–02 in seventh military position and qualified for the UEFA Cup for a irregular time, although the European political campaign of 2002–03 was far less successful than two years earlier, with an opening acquire over Ankaragücü followed by a get the better of to another turkish Süper Lig english, Beşiktaş. On 26 January 2003, the club celebrated their hundredth win in La Liga after defeating Real Valladolid 3–1. Although Alavés were relegated after 2002–03, they regained top flight condition two years later. [ 9 ] In this time, Alavés was bought by Ukrainian–American businessman Dmitry Pietrman, and several clashes followed with the club ‘s coaches, players [ 11 ] and fans alike. [ 12 ] The top-division render only lasted one season as the clubhouse went through three drumhead coaches and finished in 18th place, one point from safety. Piterman departed in 2007, leaving the club abstruse in debt after his tenure. After two years of battling against delegating to the third floor, Alavés finally succumbed in 2008–09. A subsequent black time period in Segunda B lasted four years until Alavés was bought by José Antonio Querejeta [ 13 ] and were promoted again to the second base division in 2013 as overall champions of the third gear tier, providing an opportunity to sort out its economic difficulties. Three years belated, on 29 May 2016, Alavés was promoted to La Liga as second tier champions after beating Numancia 2–0 to overtake Leganés on the concluding day .
On 10 September 2016, Alavés got their first winnings of their reappearance temper in La Liga by defeating defending La Liga champions Barcelona 2–1 at the Camp Nou. [ 14 ] On 7 February 2017, Alavés qualified for the 2017 Copa del Rey Final after eliminating Celta de Vigo in the semi-finals of the competition. This was the first meter in their history that the baseball club had qualified for the final examination of the national cup, their previous best being the semi-finals in 1998 and 2004. Their opponents in the final would be Barcelona, and coincidentally the two clubs met in the league immediately after their cup semi-finals ; the Catalans inflicted a 6–0 kill on Alavés in their own Mendizorrotza Stadium, exacting revenge for the result earlier in the season. [ 15 ] Barcelona besides won the final examination, held at the Estadio Vicente Calderón with a 3–1 scoreline, [ 16 ] intend there would be nobelium return key to european competition for Alavés. In the La Liga that temper Alavés finished 9th with 14 wins, 13 draws and 11 losses. [ 17 ]
Seasons [edit ]
Season to temper [edit ]
holocene seasons [edit ]
Players [edit ]
current squad [edit ]
- As of 3 January 2022
note : Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality .
Reserve team [edit ]
note : Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
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Out on loanword [edit ]
note : Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality .
Honours [edit ]
domestic competitions [edit ]
- Regional Championship
european competitions [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
stadium information [edit ]
celebrated players [edit ]
Coaches [edit ]
Affiliated clubs [edit ]
Alavés B/C [edit ]
The club ‘s elementary reserve team is Deportivo Alavés B, founded in 1960 and presently playing at the amateur Tercera División degree of the senior spanish system. When that team gained promotion to Segunda División B in 2000, a further reserve side Deportivo Alavés C was formed, later partnering with local team Club San Ignacio, but the C-team was discontinued in 2005 ascribable to the poor fiscal site at the baseball club. San Ignacio and most other teams in the vicinity of Vitoria-Gasteiz continue to operate as partner clubs of Alavés. [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
California Victory [edit ]
In 2007, Alavés operated a team in the USL First Division in the United States called the California Victory. The team played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, California, and wore the Alavés colors. however, Alavés, under newly ownership, pulled its support for the club late that year, after which the Victory folded .
NK Rudeš [edit ]
In May 2017, Alavés signed a ten-year partnership deal with NK Rudeš, newly promoted croatian First Football League club, with Rudeš acting as a self-feeder clubhouse to Alavés. [ 25 ] In June 2018, Deportivo Alavés and NK Rudeš ended its partnership agreement. [ 26 ]
Sochaux [edit ]
In April 2018, Alavés signed an agreement with french club FC Sochaux-Montbéliard ; [ 27 ] however the partnership lasted lone a few months, ending abruptly in December of the same class. [ 28 ]
NK Istra 1961 [edit ]
In June 2018 Alavés took a manipulate interest in another croatian top-tier baseball club, NK Istra 1961, a few weeks after ending their agreement with Rudeš. [ 29 ]
References [edit ]
Japan ( japanese : 日本, Nippon or Nihon, [ niobium 1 ] and formally 日本国 ) [ nb 2 ] is an island area in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a depart of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 hearty kilometers ( 145,937 sq nautical mile ) ; the five chief islands are Hokkaido, Honshu ( the “ mainland ” ), Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation ‘s capital and largest city ; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.
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Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the earth, vitamin a well as one of the most dumbly populate and urbanize. About three-fourths of the area ‘s terrain is cragged, concentrating its population of 125.36 million on narrow-minded coastal plains. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.4 million residents. Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period ( 30,000 BC ), though the first written mention of the archipelago appears in a taiwanese chronicle ( the Book of Han ) finished in the second hundred AD. Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unite under an emperor and the imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Beginning in the twelfth century, political ability was held by a serial of military dictators ( shōgun ) and feudal lords ( daimyō ), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility ( samurai ). After a century-long menstruation of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa dictatorship, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. In 1854, a United States evanesce forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the dictatorship and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-modeled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. In 1937, Japan invaded China ; in 1941, it entered World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. Under the 1947 fundamental law, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Japan is a big power and a extremity of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations ( since 1956 ), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, the state maintains self-defense Forces that rank as one of the world ‘s strong militaries. After World War II, Japan experienced record emergence in an economic miracle, becoming the second-largest economy in the universe by 1990. As of 2021, the country ‘s economy is the third-largest by noun phrase GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. Ranked “ very high ” on the Human Development Index, Japan has one of the world ‘s highest life expectancies, though it is experiencing a decay in population. A ball-shaped leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. The culture of Japan is well known around the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses big comic, animation and television plot industries .
The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and is pronounced Nippon or Nihon. [ 9 ] Before 日本 was adopted in the early eighth century, the country was known in China as Wa ( 倭 ) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. [ 10 ] Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese read of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. [ 9 ] Nihon is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in japanese phonology during the Edo menstruation. [ 10 ] The characters 日本 mean “ sunday origin ”, [ 9 ] which is the generator of the popular Western epithet “ Land of the Rising Sun ”. [ 11 ] The name Japan is based on the chinese pronunciation of 日本 and was introduced to european languages through early trade. In the thirteenth hundred, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. [ 12 ] The erstwhile Malay identify for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal taiwanese dialect and encountered by portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early on sixteenth century. [ 13 ] The first version of the name in English appears in a reserve published in 1577, which spelled the diagnose as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 portuguese letter. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
Prehistoric to classical music history
A paleolithic age culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the foremost known dwelling of the islands of Japan. [ 16 ] This was followed from around 14,500 BC ( the start of the Jōmon period ) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit harp and vestigial department of agriculture. [ 17 ] Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. [ 18 ] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon ; [ 19 ] the Yayoi period saw the insertion of practices including wet-rice grow, [ 20 ] a fresh style of pottery, [ 21 ] and metallurgy from China and Korea. [ 22 ] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu ( grandson of Amaterasu ) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial argumentation. [ 23 ] Japan first appears in written history in the chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje ( a Korean kingdom ) in 552, but the exploitation of japanese Buddhism was chiefly influenced by China. [ 24 ] Despite early on resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the regnant class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance begin in the Asuka period ( 592–710 ). [ 25 ] The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalize all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a family register as the basis for a newfangled arrangement of tax. [ 26 ] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for far administrative reforms. [ 27 ] These reforms culminated with the announcement of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the social organization of the cardinal and subordinate local governments. [ 26 ] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a organization of Chinese-style centralize government that remained in locate for half a millennium. [ 27 ] The Nara period ( 710–784 ) marked the emergence of a japanese submit centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō ( advanced Nara ). The time period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki ( 712 ) and Nihon Shoki ( 720 ), vitamin a well as the growth of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed vitamin a much as one-third of Japan ‘s population. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō ( contemporary Kyoto ) in 794. [ 29 ] This marked the begin of the Heian time period ( 794–1185 ), during which a distinctly autochthonal japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu ‘s The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan ‘s national hymn “Kimigayo” were written during this time. [ 31 ]
Japan ‘s feudal era was characterized by the egress and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. [ 32 ] In 1185, following the get the better of of the Taira kin in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura. [ 33 ] After Yoritomo ‘s death, the Hōjō kin came to baron as regents for the shōgun. [ 29 ] The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period ( 1185–1333 ) and became popular among the samurai classify. [ 34 ] The Kamakura dictatorship repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was finally overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. [ 29 ] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period ( 1336–1573 ). [ 35 ] The succeeding Ashikaga dictatorship failed to control the feudal warlords ( daimyō ) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ( “ Warring States ” ). [ 36 ] During the sixteenth century, portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. [ 29 ] [ 37 ] Oda Nobunaga used European engineering and firearms to conquer many early daimyō ; [ 38 ] his consolidation of ability began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. [ 39 ] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the state in the early 1590s and launched two abortive invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. [ 29 ] Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi ‘s son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military documentation. [ 40 ] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated equal clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa dictatorship at Edo ( modern Tokyo ). [ 41 ] The dictatorship enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyō, [ 42 ] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ( “ closed state ” ) policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of flimsy political one known as the Edo period ( 1603–1868 ). [ 41 ] [ 43 ] Modern Japan ‘s economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water department of transportation routes, american samoa good as fiscal instruments such as futures contracts, bank and policy of the Osaka rice brokers. [ 44 ] The study of western sciences ( rangaku ) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. [ 41 ] The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku ( “ national studies ” ), the study of Japan by the Japanese. [ 45 ]
Modern earned run average
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the “ Black Ships “ of the United States Navy forced the open of Japan to the outdoor world with the Convention of Kanagawa. [ 41 ] Subsequent like treaties with early western countries brought economic and political crises. [ 41 ] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the constitution of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor ( the Meiji Restoration ). [ 46 ] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. [ 47 ] During the Meiji period ( 1868–1912 ), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most develop nation in Asia and as an industrialize earth might that pursued military dispute to expand its sphere of charm. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] After victories in the first Sino-Japanese War ( 1894–1895 ) and the Russo-Japanese War ( 1904–1905 ), Japan gained dominance of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. [ 51 ] [ 47 ] The japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant fault to urbanization. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The early twentieth hundred saw a menstruation of Taishō democracy ( 1912–1926 ) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and mobilization. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the triumphant Allies, to capture german possessions in the Pacific and in China. [ 55 ] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups. [ 53 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] This action accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a phone number of root nationalist groups that shared a hostility to broad democracy and a commitment to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria ; following external conviction of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. [ 58 ] In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany ; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. [ 53 ]
Japan ‘s imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country ‘s surrender to the Allies. The Empire of Japan invaded early parts of China in 1937, precipitating the second Sino-Japanese War ( 1937–1945 ). [ 59 ] In 1940, the Empire invaded french Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. [ 53 ] [ 60 ] On December 7–8, 1941, japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, equally well as on british forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific. [ 61 ] Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery. [ 62 ] After Allied victories during the adjacent four years, which culminated in the soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an categoric surrender. [ 63 ] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. [ 53 ] The Allies ( led by the United States ) repatriated millions of japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the japanese conglomerate and its influence over the territories it conquered. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute japanese leaders for war crimes. [ 65 ] In 1947, Japan adopted a fresh constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. [ 65 ] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, [ 66 ] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. [ 65 ] A period of commemorate growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world ; [ 65 ] this ended in the mid-1990s after the pop of an asset price bubble, beginning the “ Lost Decade ”. [ 67 ] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its record history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe. [ 68 ] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era. [ 69 ]
Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific slide of Asia. It stretches over 3000 kilometer ( 1900 nautical mile ) northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] The area ‘s five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. [ 72 ] The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands of Japan. together they are much known as the japanese archipelago. [ 73 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s territory is 377,975.24 km2 ( 145,937.06 sq security service ). [ 1 ] Japan has the sixth-longest coastline in the populace at 29,751 kilometer ( 18,486 myocardial infarction ). Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the one-sixth largest exclusive Economic zone in the populace, covering 4,470,000 km2 ( 1,730,000 sq mi ). [ 74 ] [ 75 ] The japanese archipelago is 66.4 % forests, 12.8 % agrarian and 4.8 % residential ( 2002 ). [ 76 ] The chiefly rugged and mountainous terrain is restricted for habitation. [ 77 ] Thus the habitable zones, chiefly in the coastal areas, have identical high population densities : Japan is the fortieth most densely populate country. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Honshu has the highest population concentration at 450 persons/km2 ( 1,200/sq mile ) as of 2010, while Hokkaido has the lowest concentration of 64.5 persons/km2 as of 2016. [ 80 ] As of 2014, approximately 0.5 % of Japan ‘s sum area is reclaimed land ( umetatechi ). [ 81 ] Lake Biwa is an ancient lake and the country ‘s largest fresh water lake. [ 82 ] Japan is well prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanic eruptions because of its placement along the Pacific Ring of Fire. [ 83 ] It has the 17th highest natural calamity gamble as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. [ 84 ] Japan has 111 active volcanoes. [ 85 ] Destructive earthquakes, frequently resulting in tsunami, happen several times each century ; [ 86 ] the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed all over 140,000 people. [ 87 ] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a big tsunami. [ 68 ]
The climate of Japan is predominantly moderate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very affectionate to cool summers. precipitation is not heavy, but the islands normally develop thick snowbanks in the winter. [ 88 ] In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu ‘s west slide, northwesterly winter winds bring arduous snow during winter. In the summer, the area sometimes experiences highly hot temperatures because of the fohn. [ 89 ] The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing meek weather year-round. [ 88 ] The Pacific slide features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with periodic snow and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. precipitation is very intemperate, specially during the showery season. [ 88 ] The main showery season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain movement gradually moves union. In belated summer and early fall, typhoons often bring heavy rain. [ 90 ] According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rain and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. [ 91 ] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C ( 106.0 °F ), was recorded on July 23, 2018, [ 92 ] and repeated on August 17, 2020. [ 93 ]
Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical damp broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and blend forests in the balmy climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. [ 94 ] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife as of 2019, [ 95 ] including the brown university bear, the japanese macaque, the japanese raccoon chase, the little japanese field mouse, and the japanese colossus salamander. [ 96 ] A boastfully net of national parks has been established to protect crucial areas of flora and fauna adenine well as 52 Ramsar wetland sites. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural rate. [ 99 ]
In the period of rapid economic increase after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the politics and industrial corporations ; as a result, environmental contamination was far-flung in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental protection laws in 1970. [ 100 ] The anoint crisis in 1973 besides encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan ‘s miss of natural resources. [ 101 ] As of 2020, more than 22 coal-fired ability plants are planned for construction in Japan, following the switching-off of Japan ‘s nuclear evanesce after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear catastrophe. [ 102 ] Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a state ‘s commitment to environmental sustainability. [ 103 ] Japan is the earth ‘s one-fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. [ 91 ] As the host and signer of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take early steps to curb climate switch. [ 104 ] In 2020 the government of Japan announced a prey of carbon-neutrality by 2050. [ 105 ] Environmental issues include urban air befoulment ( NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics ), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and external co-operation for conservation. [ 106 ]
Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial function. [ 107 ] Executive might is alternatively wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the japanese people. [ 108 ] Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his church father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019. [ 107 ]
Japan ‘s legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral fantan. [ 107 ] It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. [ 109 ] There is universal right to vote for adults over 18 years of age, [ 110 ] with a confidential vote for all elected offices. [ 108 ] The prime minister as the pass of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. [ 109 ] Fumio Kishida is Japan ‘s prime minister ; he took function after winning the 2021 Liberal Democratic Party leadership election. [ 111 ] historically influenced by chinese law, the japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. [ 112 ] Since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the german Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. [ 113 ] The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the worldly concern. [ 114 ] Statutory police originates in the legislature, and the united states constitution requires that the emperor proclaim legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the baron to oppose legislation. The main body of japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [ 112 ] Japan ‘s court system is divided into four basic tiers : the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. [ 115 ]
Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each oversee by an elected governor and legislature. [ 107 ] In the adopt table, the prefectures are grouped by region : [ 116 ]
|Prefectures of Japan with color regions||
Japan is a member of both the G7 and the G20 A penis state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the Security Council. [ 117 ] Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and “ ASEAN Plus Three “, and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. [ 118 ] It is the world ‘s fifth largest donor of official development aid, donating US $ 9.2 billion in 2014. [ 119 ] In 2019, Japan had the fourth-largest diplomatic network in the world. [ 120 ] Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. [ 121 ] The United States is a major market for japanese exports and a major source of japanese imports, and is committed to defending the nation, with military bases in Japan. [ 121 ] Japan signed a security treaty with Australia in March 2007 [ 122 ] and with India in October 2008. [ 123 ] Japan ‘s relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan ‘s treatment of Koreans during japanese colonial predominate, particularly over the issue of consolation women. In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the quilt women dispute with South Korea by issuing a dinner dress apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. [ 124 ] As of 2019 Japan is a major importer of korean music ( K-pop ), television receiver ( K-dramas ), and early cultural products. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan contests Russia ‘s restraint of the Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. [ 127 ] South Korea ‘s control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. [ 128 ] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. [ 129 ]
Japan is the second-highest-ranked asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. [ 130 ] Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any area in the world. [ 131 ] The country ‘s military ( the Japan Self-Defense Forces ) is restricted by Article 9 of the japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan ‘s right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. [ 132 ] The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and chiefly consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first oversea use of Japan ‘s military since World War II. [ 133 ] The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the institution of the National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. [ 134 ] In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passivity it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more duty for regional security. [ 135 ] Recent tensions, peculiarly with North Korea and China, have reignited the consider over the condition of the JSDF and its sexual intercourse to japanese society. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ]
domestic law enforcement
domestic security system in Japan is provided chiefly by the prefectural patrol departments, under the supervision of the National Police Agency. [ 139 ] As the central coordinate body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. [ 140 ] The special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. [ 141 ] The Japan Coast Guard guards territorial waters surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, plagiarism, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration. [ 142 ] The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law rigorously regulates the civilian ownership of guns, swords and other weaponry. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the penis states of the UN that report statistics as of 2018, the incidence rates of crimson crimes such as mangle, abduction, sexual ferocity and looting are identical low in Japan. [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ]
Japan is the third-largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of noun phrase GDP, [ 149 ] and the fourth-largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing exponent parity as of 2019. [ 150 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s department of labor coerce consisted of 67 million workers. [ 109 ] Japan has a broken unemployment pace of around 2.4 percentage. [ 109 ] Around 16 percentage of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. [ 151 ] Japan today has the highest ratio of public debt to GDP of any develop nation, [ 152 ] [ 153 ] with national debt at 236 % relative to GDP as of 2017. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] The japanese yen is the populace ‘s third-largest reserve currentness ( after the US dollar and the euro ). [ 156 ] Japan ‘s exports amounted to 18.5 % of GDP in 2018. [ 157 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s chief export markets were the United States ( 19.8 percentage ) and China ( 19.1 percentage ). [ 109 ] Its main exports are drive vehicles, iron and sword products, semiconductors and car parts. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s independent consequence markets as of 2019 were China ( 23.5 percentage ), the United States ( 11 percentage ), and Australia ( 6.3 percentage ). [ 109 ] Japan ‘s main imports are machinery and equipment, dodo fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and bare-assed materials for its industries. [ 109 ] Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 still of doing business index. [ 158 ] The japanese random variable of capitalism has many distinct features : keiretsu enterprises are influential, and life employment and seniority-based career promotion are coarse in the japanese work environment. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] Japan has a large accommodative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer accommodative and the largest agrarian cooperative in the earth as of 2018. [ 161 ] Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016. [ 162 ] [ 163 ]
farming and fishery
The japanese agrarian sector accounts for about 1.2 % of the total country ‘s GDP as of 2018. [ 109 ] only 11.5 % of Japan ‘s kingdom is desirable for cultivation. [ 164 ] Because of this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. [ 165 ] This results in one of the earth ‘s highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agrarian autonomy rate of about 50 % as of 2018. [ 166 ] Japan ‘s little agrarian sector is highly subsidized and protected. [ 167 ] There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a unmanageable time finding successors. [ 168 ] Japan ranked seventh in the populace in tonnage of fish catch and captured 3,167,610 measured tons of fish in 2016, gloomy from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous ten. [ 169 ] Japan maintains one of the populace ‘s largest fishing fleets and accounts for about 15 % of the ball-shaped capture, [ 74 ] prompting critiques that Japan ‘s fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. [ 170 ] Japan has sparked controversy by supporting commercial whale. [ 171 ]
Japan has a big industrial capacity and is dwelling to some of the “ largest and most technologically advance producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, sword and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods “. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5 % of its GDP. [ 74 ] The nation ‘s fabricate output signal is the one-third highest in the universe as of 2019. [ 173 ] Japan is the third-largest car producer in the global as of 2017 and is home to Toyota, the world ‘s largest car ship’s company. [ 172 ] [ 174 ] The japanese shipbuilding industry faces competition from South Korea and China ; a 2020 government first step identified this sector as a target for increasing exports. [ 175 ]
Services and tourism
Japan ‘s service sector accounts for about 70 % of its total economic end product as of 2019. [ 176 ] Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, – NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. [ 179 ] For inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 11th in the world in 2019. [ 180 ] The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries, which was the highest in Asia. [ 181 ]
skill and engineering
Japan is a leading state in scientific research, peculiarly in the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index and 16th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 15th in 2019. [ 182 ] Relative to gross domestic product, Japan ‘s inquiry and development budget is the second highest in the earth, [ 183 ] with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen inquiry and development budget as of 2017. [ 184 ] The area has produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicate, [ 185 ] and three Fields medalists. [ 186 ] Japan leads the worldly concern in robotics production and use, supplying 55 % of the world ‘s 2017 total. [ 187 ] Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per head in the worldly concern with 14 per 1000 employees. [ 188 ] The japanese consumer electronics diligence, once considered the strongest in the worldly concern, is in a state of decline as contest arises in countries like South Korea and China. [ 189 ] however, video recording gambling in Japan remains a major diligence. In 2014, Japan ‘s consumer video game market grossed $ 9.6 billion, with $ 5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming. [ 190 ] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan ‘s home space means ; it conducts space, planetal, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. [ 191 ] It is a player in the International Space Station : the japanese Experiment Module ( Kibō ) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. [ 192 ] The space probe Akatsuki was launched in 2010 and achieved sphere around Venus in 2015. [ 193 ] Japan ‘s plans in space exploration include building a daydream basal and bring astronauts by 2030. [ 194 ] In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE ( Selenological and Engineering Explorer ) from Tanegashima Space Center. The largest lunar deputation since the Apollo platform, its aim was to gather data on the moon ‘s beginning and evolution. The internet explorer entered a lunar sphere on October 4, 2007, [ 195 ] [ 196 ] and was measuredly crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009. [ 197 ]
Japan has invested heavily in transportation system infrastructure. [ 198 ] The nation has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers ( 750,000 miles ) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers ( 620,000 miles ) of city, town and village roads, 130,000 kilometers ( 81,000 miles ) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers ( 34,011 miles ) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers ( 4748 miles ) of home expressways as of 2017. [ 199 ] Since denationalization in 1987, [ 200 ] dozens of japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets ; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. The high-speed Shinkansen ( bullet trains ) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [ 201 ] There are 175 airports in Japan as of 2013. [ 74 ] The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was Asia ‘s second-busiest airport in 2019. [ 202 ] The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the global, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively as of 2017. [ 203 ]
As of 2017, 39 % of department of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25 % from coal, 23 % from natural gasoline, 3.5 % from hydropower and 1.5 % from nuclear power. nuclear might was gloomy from 11.2 percentage in 2010. [ 204 ] By May 2012 all of the nation ‘s nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to avail. [ 205 ] The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, [ 206 ] and since then respective other nuclear office plants have been restarted. [ 207 ] Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and has a dense dependence on imported energy. [ 208 ] The nation has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high gear levels of energy efficiency. [ 209 ]
Water issue and sanitation
responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water issue for domestic manipulation ; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in consign of water system resources development adenine well as sanitation ; the Ministry of the Environment, in care of ambient water quality and environmental preservation ; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in charge of operation benchmarking of utilities. [ 210 ] Access to an improved water system informant is universal in Japan. About 98 % of the population receives pipe water supply from public utilities. [ 211 ]
Japan has a population of 125.7 million, of which 123.2 million are japanese nationals ( 2020 estimates ). [ 212 ] A small population of foreign residents makes up the remainder. [ 213 ] In 2019, 92 % of the total japanese population lived in cities. [ 214 ] The capital city Tokyo has a population of 14.0 million ( 2021 ). [ 215 ] It is separate of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the populace with 38,140,000 people ( 2016 ). [ 216 ] cultural minority groups in Japan include the autochthonal Ainu and Ryukyuan people. [ 217 ] Zainichi Koreans, [ 218 ] Chinese, [ 219 ] Filipinos, [ 220 ] Brazilians by and large of japanese descent, [ 221 ] and Peruvians by and large of japanese descent are besides among Japan ‘s little minority groups. [ 222 ] Burakumin make up a social minority group. [ 223 ] Japan has the second-longest overall life anticipation at parturition of any state in the world, at 84 years as of 2019. [ 224 ] The japanese population is quickly aging as a result of a post–World War II pamper boom followed by a decrease in parturition rates. [ 225 ] As of 2019 over 20 percentage of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. [ 226 ] The changes in demographic structure have created a count of social issues, peculiarly a decline in work force population and increase in the cost of social security benefits. [ 226 ] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] Japan ‘s population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2060. [ 228 ] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the state ‘s aging population. [ 229 ] [ 230 ] On April 1, 2019, Japan ‘s revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of alien workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. [ 231 ]
Japan ‘s constitution guarantees full religious freedom. [ 232 ] Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percentage of the japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its autochthonal religion. [ 233 ] however, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, preferably than the number of true believers. many japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism ; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or religious. [ 234 ] The horizontal surface of engagement in religious ceremonies as a cultural custom remains high, specially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine chew the fat of the New Year. [ 235 ] taoism and confucianism from China have besides influenced japanese beliefs and customs. [ 236 ] Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. nowadays, 1 % [ 237 ] to 1.5 % of the population are Christians. [ 238 ] Throughout the latest century, western customs originally related to Christianity ( including western style weddings, Valentine ‘s Day and Christmas ) have become popular as secular customs among many japanese. [ 239 ] about 90 % of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants as of 2016. [ 240 ] As of 2018 there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically japanese. [ 241 ] early minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, angstrom well as the animist belief of the Ainu. [ 242 ]
Kanji and hiragana signs andsigns japanese writing uses kanji ( chinese characters ) and two sets of kana ( syllabaries based on cursive handwriting and radical of kanji ), american samoa well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. [ 243 ] English teaching was made compulsory in japanese elementary schools in 2020. [ 244 ] Besides japanese, the Ryukyuan languages ( Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni ), part of the Japonic terminology family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. [ 245 ] few children learn these languages, [ 246 ] but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. [ 247 ] The Ainu linguistic process, which is a linguistic process isolate, is moribund, with lone a few native speakers remaining as of 2014. [ 248 ]
primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. [ 249 ] Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior gamey school, which together last for nine years. [ 250 ] Almost all children continue their education at a three-year elder high gear school. [ 251 ] The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. [ 252 ] Starting in April 2016, diverse schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program ; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted countrywide. [ 253 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA ) coordinated by the OECD ranks the cognition and skills of japanese 15-year-olds as the third base best in the world. [ 254 ] Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average scholar scoring 529 and has one of the world ‘s highest-educated undertaking forces among OECD countries. [ 255 ] [ 254 ] [ 256 ] As of 2017, Japan ‘s public spend on education amounted to equitable 3.3 percentage of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percentage. [ 257 ] In 2017, the area ranked third base for the share of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percentage. [ 258 ] approximately 60 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor ‘s degrees are held by 30.4 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. [ 258 ]
Health care is provided by national and local anesthetic governments. payment for personal checkup services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without policy through employers can participate in a national health insurance platform administered by local governments. [ 259 ] Since 1973, all aged persons have been covered by government-sponsored indemnity. [ 260 ] Japan has one of the worldly concern ‘s highest suicide rates. [ 261 ] Another significant populace health publish is smoking among japanese men. [ 262 ] Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the develop populace. [ 263 ]
contemporaneous japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. [ 264 ] traditional japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls ; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo ; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a originate system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. [ 265 ] Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance. [ 99 ]
artwork and computer architecture
The history of japanese painting expose deduction and competition between native japanese esthetics and imported ideas. [ 266 ] The interaction between japanese and european art has been significant : for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the nineteenth century in the movement known as Japonism, had a meaning charm on the development of modern artwork in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. [ 266 ] japanese manga developed in the twentieth hundred and have become democratic worldwide. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mire plaster structures, elevated slenderly off the grind, with tiled or thatched roof. [ 269 ] The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of japanese computer architecture. [ 270 ] Traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the eminence between rooms and indoor and outdoor quad. [ 271 ] Since the nineteenth century, Japan has incorporated much of western modern architecture into construction and design. [ 272 ] It was not until after World War II that japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, first with the ferment of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism. [ 273 ]
literature and philosophy
The earliest works of japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man’yōshū poetry anthology, all from the eighth hundred and written in chinese characters. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] In the early on Heian period, the arrangement of phonograms known as kana ( hiragana and katakana ) was developed. [ 276 ] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant japanese narrative. [ 277 ] An explanation of court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the global ‘s first fresh. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] During the Edo period, the chōnin ( “ town ” ) overtook the samurai nobility as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this switch in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai ( haiku ) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. [ 280 ] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as japanese literature integrate western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early on twentieth hundred, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun’ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata ( 1968 ) and Kenzaburō Ōe ( 1994 ). [ 281 ] japanese doctrine has historically been a fusion of both foreign, peculiarly taiwanese and western, and uniquely japanese elements. In its literary forms, japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. confucian ideals remain discernible in the japanese concept of company and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. [ 282 ] Buddhism has profoundly impacted japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics. [ 283 ]
Noh performance at a Shinto shrine performance at a Shinto enshrine japanese music is eclectic and diverse. many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and tenth centuries. The democratic family music, with the guitar-like samisen, dates from the sixteenth hundred. [ 284 ] western classical music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, forms an integral part of japanese culture. [ 285 ] Kumi-daiko ( ensemble drum ) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. [ 286 ] Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavy influenced by American and european trends, which has led to the development of J-pop. [ 287 ] Karaoke is a meaning cultural activity. [ 288 ] The four traditional theaters from Japan are noh, kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku. [ 289 ] Noh is one of the oldest continuous field traditions in the world. [ 290 ]
Customs and holidays
Ishin-denshin ( 以心伝心 ) is a japanese artistic style which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unexpressed common sympathy. [ 291 ] Isagiyosa ( 潔さ ) is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the brevity of the world. [ 292 ] Hansei ( 反省 ) is a central idea in japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one ‘s own error and to pledge improvement. Kotodama ( 言霊 ) refers to the japanese impression that mysterious powers dwell in words and names. [ 293 ] officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law ( 国民の祝日に関する法律, Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu ) of 1948. [ 294 ] Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a issue of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. [ 295 ] The national holidays in Japan are New Year ‘s Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor ‘s Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children ‘s Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the third base Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the moment Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23. [ 296 ]
japanese cuisine offers a huge array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. [ 297 ] Seafood and japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. [ 298 ] Japanese curry, since its initiation to Japan from British India, is so wide consumed that it can be termed a national serve, aboard ramen and sushi. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] Traditional japanese sweets are known as wagashi. [ 302 ] Ingredients such as loss bean paste and mochi are used. More contemporary tastes includes green tea ice skim. [ 303 ] popular japanese beverages include sake, which is a brew rice beverage that typically contains 14–17 % alcohol and is made by multiple zymosis of rice. [ 304 ] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late seventeenth century. [ 305 ] Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the japanese tea ceremony. [ 306 ]
According to the 2015 NHK survey on television receiver screening in Japan, 79 percentage of japanese watch television daily. [ 307 ] japanese television drama are viewed both within Japan and internationally ; [ 308 ] other popular shows are in the genres of assortment shows, comedy, and news program programs. [ 309 ] japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world as of 2016. [ 310 ] Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. [ 311 ] Ishirō Honda ‘s Godzilla became an international picture of Japan and spawned an integral subgenre of kaiju films, vitamin a well as the longest-running movie franchise in history. [ 312 ] [ 313 ] japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by japanese manga and have become highly popular in the western universe and East Asia. Japan is a world-renowned power station of animation. [ 314 ] [ 315 ] [ 316 ] [ 317 ]
Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony traditionally, sumo is considered Japan ‘s national mutant. [ 318 ] japanese soldierly arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory junior high school course of study. [ 319 ] Baseball is the most popular spectator pump mutant in the country. [ 320 ] Japan ‘s top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. [ 321 ] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide follow. [ 322 ] The area co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. [ 323 ] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the asian Cup four times, [ 324 ] and the FIFA Women ‘s World Cup in 2011. [ 325 ] Golf is besides popular in Japan. [ 326 ] In motorsport, japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in serial such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] [ 329 ] Three japanese drivers have achieved dais finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in accession to success in domestic championships. [ 330 ] [ 331 ] Super GT is the most democratic national series in Japan, while Super Formula is the top floor domestic open-wheel series. [ 332 ] The state hosts major races such as the japanese Grand Prix. [ 333 ] Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. [ 334 ] The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship [ 335 ] and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. [ 336 ] Tokyo hosted the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2021, making Tokyo the beginning asian city to host the Olympics twice. [ 337 ] The area gained the host rights for the official Women ‘s Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. [ 338 ] Japan is the most successful asian Rugby Union country [ 339 ] and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. [ 340 ]
- [ɲippoꜜɴ] (
) or [ɲihoꜜɴ] (
-  In Japanese, the name of the country as it appears on official documents, including the 日本国 ( or Nihon-koku), meaning “State of Japan”. Despite this, the short-form name 日本 (Nippon or Nihon) is also often used officially. In English, the official name of the state is plainly “ Japan ” .In japanese, the name of the nation as it appears on official documents, including the nation ‘s constitution, isor ), meaning “ State of Japan ”. Despite this, the short-form nameor ) is besides often used officially .
- Japan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Japan profile from BBC News
- Japan from the OECD
- Geographic data related to Japan at OpenStreetMap
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Reading: Ronaldo Net Worth
In terms of goalscoring ability, he is one of the highest-scoring players of all time. He scored 62 goals for Brazil, and entirely Pele has scored more for his country. At long time 23, he had scored 200 goals for club and country. however, Ronaldo ‘s career faded abruptly with a sudden onset of serious injuries. It what seemed like a blink of an eye, Ronaldo disappeared from the game of football arsenic promptly as he had appeared. After leaving the game, Ronaldo became closely involved with beneficent work, becoming a United Nations Development Programme Goodwill Ambassador. He besides served as an ambassador for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. In 2018, Ronaldo purchased a team in the spanish La Liga called Real Valladolid. Early Life: Ronaldo Luiz Nazario de Lima was born on September 18th of 1976 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Raised aboard two siblings, Ronaldo played soccer in the streets of Rio from a new historic period. soon after his parents divorced when he was 11, Ronaldo dropped out of school to pursue a career as a master soccer player. He began his career as a futsal actor ( indoor soccer ), joining a youth league and cursorily becoming the spark advance scorer in the integral city ‘s league. In his inaugural season alone, he scored 166 goals. Futsal was an important partially of Ronaldo ‘s development, helping him determine technical skills and close ball control that would become his identify strengths in his belated playing career. Ronaldo was promptly signed by sports agents. Career: Ronaldo made his professional debut for the brazilian side Cruzeiro in 1993. While still a 16-year-old, he scored five goals in one couple and started to attract international attention. After scoring 44 goals in 47 games during his first base season, Ronaldo joined the brazilian World Cup squad in 1994, but only as an unused substitute. After the World Cup, Ronaldo joined Dutch side PSV Eindhoven. After scoring 30 goals in his first temper, some were already wondering whether Ronaldo had what it took to be the best player of all prison term, despite being just 18. His second season at PSV was marred by a knee injury. Before the 1996-1997 season, Ronaldo joined Barcelona for a then-world-record tip of $ 19.5 million. During his first season, he scored an improbable 47 goals in all competitions and ended 1996 with a FIFA World Player of the Year Award.
Ronaldo spent merely one season at Barcelona before moving to Inter Milan, again breaking the global record with a signing fee of $ 27 million. Although he had to adapt to the italian style of play during the beginning season, he finally became a more accomplished striker during his time at Inter and won his first Ballon d’Or. In 1998, Ronaldo entered the FIFA World Cup as a originate striker for Brazil, and many considered him to be the best player on the planet. He scored endlessly throughout the tournament before a convulsive burst threatened to take him out of the concluding. He miraculously recovered barely hours before beginning, but he seemed dazed and Brazil lost the final examination to France. Later, a neurologist determined that Ronaldo should not have been allowed to play while feeling the aftereffects of a seizure. In the years that followed, Ronaldo began to have dangerous issues with his knees. In 2000, he suffered a complete rupture of his kneecap tendons. This caused Ronaldo to miss about three years of professional sport, although he returned in 2002 to help Brazil win the World Cup. That year, he besides signed with Real Madrid for 46 million Euros. He was one of Real ‘s key players, but Ronaldo suffered from continuous injury and weight issues during his time in Madrid . After playing one last time for Brazil in the 2006 World Cup, Ronaldo transferred to A.C. Milan in 2007 for 8.05 million Euros. In 2008, he suffered another dangerous knee injury and joined the brazilian club Corinthians shortly thereafter. In 2011, he formally retired, revealing for the foremost time that he suffered from hyperthyroidism – which explained his weight gain issues. In addition, he admitted that his body simply could n’t continue after suffering so many injuries, even though mentally he wanted to keep going. His integral footballing career lasted 18 years. Nike Contract: Nike was flying to sign Ronaldo to a lucrative condense. In 1996, he signed a 10-year compress and life stigmatize endorsement cope with Nike for $ 180 million. shortly after the narrow was signed, Nike designed the now-famous Mercurial R9 soccer boot for him. He wore the boots at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, and ever since then, they have become some of Nike ‘s most successful boots. In the years that passed, similar Mercurial boots were designed for players like Cristiano Ronaldo and Kylian Mbappe. Ronaldo besides appeared in a range of Nike commercials over the years.
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Other Brand Endorsements: Outside of his committedness to Nike, Ronaldo has appeared in a compass of other commercials over the years. Some of his most celebrated appearances were in Snickers and Pirelli commercials, and he is besides a regular have in EA ‘s “ FIFA ” video recording bet on franchise. Purchase of Real Valladolid: In 2018, it was announced that Ronaldo had purchased a controlling stake in the La Liga clubhouse Real Valladolid. He paid approximately 30 million Euros for a 51 % venture in the team, making him the majority owner. After the acquisition, Ronaldo announced that he was approaching his modern managerial role with the extreme seriousness, stating that he wanted to build “ the best team possible. ”
It is a far-from-ideal situation for either side, peculiarly after Man City extended their lead at the top of the Premier League with a 2-1 win over Arsenal.
Jurgen Klopp is absent for the Reds, along with three other first-team players who tested positive, while Thomas Tuchel is besides feeling the effects of injury and Covid .
Both Liverpool and Chelsea will be tidal bore to take all three points to preserve their title challenge, however, which makes for an enthralling clash in west London .
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Rest of the World
Supporters can find the Stamford Bridge clash on the be channels worldwide :
beIN 4K Arabia, beIN Sports Premium 1, beIN SPORTS CONNECT, beIN Sports English, RMC Sport 1, SuperSport Premier League ROA, SuperSport MaXimo 1, DStv immediately, ESPN Argentina, Star+, RUSH, Optus Sport, Sky Sport Premier League HD, Star Sports Select HD1, Belarus 5, Play Sports 2, Play Sports, VOOsport World 1, Canal+ Sport 3 Afrique, Star+, ESPN Peru, Diema Sport 2, Play Diema Xtra, DAZN, ESPN Chile, PPTV Sport China, QQ Sports Live, Migu, iQiyi, ESPN Colombia, Cytavision Sports 3, Cytavision on the Go, Premier Sport, DIGI GO, Viaplay Denmark, Xee, V Sport Ultra HD, TV3 Sport, V Sport Premium, Elisa Viihde Viaplay, V Sport Ultra HD, V Sport 2 Finland, Canal+ France, Sky Ticket, Cosmote Sport 1 HD, Digi Sport 1, SiminnSport, JioTV, Hotstar VIP, Mola TV, Sport 1, Sky Sport Uno, Setanta Sports Kazakhstan, SuperSport Kosova 1, IPKO TVim, TSN2 Malta, GO TV Anywhere, Blue To Go Video Everywhere, Ziggo Sport 14, Ziggo Sport Select, Spark Sport, TV2 Sport Premium, television 2 Play, nc+ GO, Sport TV1, Sport TV Multiscreen, Eurosport Romania, Eurosport Player Romania, Okko Sport, 102 ( HD ) mio Stadium, Viaplay Sweden, S Sport, S Sport+, Setanta Sports+, K+ SPORT 1
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neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City
Chelsea is a neighborhood on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The zone ‘s boundaries are roughly 14th Street to the south, the Hudson River and West Street to the west, and Sixth Avenue to the east, with its northerly boundary variously described as near the upper 20s [ 5 ] [ 6 ] or 34th Street, the next major crosstown street to the north. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] To the northwest of Chelsea is the neighborhood of Hell ‘s Kitchen, a well as Hudson Yards ; to the northeasterly are the Garment District and the remainder of Midtown South ; to the east are NoMad and the Flatiron District ; to the southwest is the Meatpacking District ; and to the south and southeast are the West Village and the remainder of Greenwich Village. [ 9 ] [ barn ] Chelsea is named after the Royal Hospital Chelsea in London, England.
Reading: Chelsea, Manhattan – Wikipedia
Chelsea contains the Chelsea Historic District and its extension, which were designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1970 and 1981 respectively. [ 10 ] The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, and expanded in 1982 to include conterminous blocks containing particularly significant examples of period architecture. The vicinity is chiefly residential, with a desegregate of tenements, apartment blocks, city house projects, townhouses, and renovated rowhouses, but its many retail businesses reflect the cultural and social diversity of the population. The area has a boastfully LGBTQ population. [ 11 ] Chelsea is besides known as one of the centers of the city ‘s art earth, with over 200 galleries in the neighborhood. As of 2015, due to the area ‘s gentrification, there is a let out income gap between the affluent be in luxury buildings and the poor living in caparison projects, who are, at times, across the street from each early. Chelsea is a character of Manhattan Community District 4 and Manhattan Community District 5, and its chief ZIP Codes are 10001 and 10011. [ 1 ] It is patrolled by the tenth Precinct of the New York City Police Department .
history [edit ]
early development [edit ]
Chelsea takes its name from the estate and Georgian-style house of put out british Major Thomas Clarke, who obtained the property when he bought the farm of Jacob Somerindyck on August 16, 1750. The bring was bounded by what would become 21st and 24th Streets, from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue. [ 6 ] Clarke chose the name “ Chelsea ” after a district in London, England. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Clarke passed the estate on to his daughter, Charity, who, with her husband Benjamin Moore, added land on the south of the estate of the realm, extending it to 19th Street. [ 6 ] The house was the birthplace of their son, Clement Clarke Moore, who in become inherited the property. moore is generally credited with writing “ A visit From St. Nicholas “ and was the author of the first base Greek and Hebrew lexicons printed in the United States. In 1827, Moore gave the land of his apple grove to the Episcopal Diocese of New York for the General Theological Seminary, which built its brownstone Gothic, tree-shaded campus south of the manor house. Despite his objections to the Commissioner ‘s plan of 1811, which ran the new Ninth Avenue through the in-between of his estate, Moore began the development of Chelsea with the avail of James N. Wells, dividing it up into lots along Ninth Avenue and selling them to comfortable New Yorkers. [ 14 ] Covenants in the deeds of sale specified what could be built on the estate – stables, fabricate and commercial uses were prevent – equally well as architectural details of the buildings. [ 6 ]
industrialization [edit ]
The new neighborhood thrived for three decades, with many individual syndicate homes and rowhouses, in the summons expanding past the original boundaries of Clarke ‘s estate of the realm, but an industrial partition besides began to develop along the Hudson. [ 6 ] In 1847 the Hudson River Railroad laid its cargo tracks up a right-of-way between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues, separating Chelsea from the Hudson River waterfront. By the time of the Civil War, the area west of Ninth Avenue and below 20th Street was the location of numerous distilleries making turpentine and camphene, a lamp fuel. In addition, the huge Manhattan Gas Works complex, which converted bituminous coal into natural gas, was located at Ninth and 18th Street. [ 15 ] The industrialization of western Chelsea brought immigrant populations from many countries to work in the factories, [ 16 ] including a large number of irish immigrants, who dominated work on the Hudson River piers that lined the nearby waterfront and the truck terminals integrated with the freight railroad spur. [ degree centigrade ] adenine well as the piers, warehouses and factories, the industrial area west of Tenth Avenue besides included lumberyards and breweries, and tenements built to house the workers. With the immigrant population came the political domination of the neighborhood by the Tammany Hall machine, [ 16 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as festering cultural tensions : about 67 people died in a riot between irish Catholics and irish Protestants on July 12, 1871, which took put around 24th Street and Eighth Avenue. [ 6 ] [ 17 ] The social problems of the area ‘s workers provoked John Lovejoy Elliot to form the Hudson Guild in 1897, one of the first colonization houses – private organizations designed to provide social services .
late history [edit ]
A theater zone had formed in the area by 1869, [ 6 ] and soon West 23rd Street was the center of american english dramaturgy, led by Pike ‘s Opera House ( 1868, demolished 1960 ), on the northwest corner of Eighth Avenue. Chelsea was an early center for the motion visualize diligence before World War I. Some of Mary Pickford ‘s first pictures were made on the circus tent floors of an arsenal build up at 221 West 26th Street, while other studios were located on 23rd and 21st Streets. [ 16 ] London Terrace was one of the world ‘s largest apartment blocks when it opened in 1930, with a liquid pool, sun parlor, gymnasium, and doormen dressed as London bobbies. other major housing complexes in the Chelsea area are Penn South, a 1962 cooperative house growth sponsored by the International Ladies Garment Workers ‘ Union, and the New York City Housing Authority -built and -operated Fulton Houses and Chelsea-Elliot Houses. The massive 23-story Art Deco Walker Building, which spans the block between 17th and 18th Streets good off of Seventh Avenue, was built in the early 1930s. It typifies the real estate natural process of the district, as it has been converted in 2012 to residential apartments on the top 16 floors, with Verizon retaining the lower seven floors. [ 18 ] In the early 1940s, tons of uranium for the Manhattan Project were stored in the Baker & Williams Warehouse at 513-519 West 20th Street. The uranium was removed and a decontamination stick out at the locate was completed early on 1990s. [ 19 ] On September 17, 2016, there was an explosion outside a build on 23rd Street, which injured 29 people ; police located and removed a second, undetonated press cooker bomb on 27th Street. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] A suspect, Ahmad Khan Rahami, was captured two days late after a gunfight in Linden, New Jersey. [ 22 ]
Demographics [edit ]
For census purposes, the New York City government classifies Chelsea as part of a larger region tabulation area called Hudson Yards-Chelsea-Flat Iron-Union Square. [ 23 ] Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Hudson Yards-Chelsea-Flat Iron-Union Square was 70,150, a change of 14,311 ( 20.4 % ) from the 55,839 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 851.67 acres ( 344.66 hour angle ), the vicinity had a population density of 82.4 inhabitants per acre ( 52,700/sq mile ; 20,400/km2 ). [ 24 ] The racial makeup of the region was 65.1 % ( 45,661 ) White, 5.7 % ( 4,017 ) african American, 0.1 % ( 93 ) native American, 11.8 % ( 8,267 ) Asian, 0 % ( 21 ) Pacific Islander, 0.4 % ( 261 ) from other races, and 2.3 % ( 1,587 ) from two or more races. hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.6 % ( 10,243 ) of the population. [ 3 ] The entirety of Community District 4, which comprises Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, had 122,119 inhabitants as of NYC Health ‘s 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life anticipation of 83.1 years. [ 25 ] : 2, 20 This is higher than the median life anticipation of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. [ 26 ] : 53 ( PDF p. 84 ) [ 27 ] Most inhabitants are adults : a battalion ( 45 % ) are between the ages of 25–44, while 26 % are between 45 and 64, and 13 % are 65 or older. The proportion of youth and college-aged residents was lower, at 9 % and 8 % respectively. [ 25 ] : 2 As of 2017, the median family income in Community Districts 4 and 5 ( including Midtown Manhattan ) was $ 101,981, [ 28 ] though the median income in Chelsea individually was $ 116,160. [ 2 ] In 2018, an estimated 11 % of Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen residents lived in poverty, compared to 14 % in all of Manhattan and 20 % in all of New York City. One in twenty residents ( 5 % ) were unemployed people, compared to 7 % in Manhattan and 9 % in New York City. Rent load, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their lease, is 41 % in Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45 % and 51 % respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. [ 25 ] : 7
culture [edit ]
People of many different cultures live in Chelsea. Chelsea is celebrated for having a large LGBTQ population, with one of Chelsea ‘s census tracts reporting that 22 % of its residents were gay couples, [ 11 ] and is known for its social diverseness and inclusion. [ 29 ] Eighth Avenue is a concentrate for LGBT-oriented shopping and boom, and from 16th to 22nd Streets between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, mid-nineteenth-century brick and brownstone townhouses are distillery occupied, a few even restored to unmarried family use. [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
The stores of Chelsea reflect the heathen and social diversity of the area ‘s population. The Chelsea Lofts district – the former fur and flower district – is located roughly between Sixth and Seventh Avenues from 23rd to 30th streets. [ citation needed ] The McBurney YMCA on West 23rd Street, commemorated in the hit Village People sung Y.M.C.A., sold its home and relocated in 2002 to a newfangled adeptness on 14th Street, the vicinity ‘s southern margin. [ 32 ] Most recently, Chelsea has become an alternative shop finish, starring the likes of Barneys CO-OP — which replaced the much larger original Barneys flagship memory — Comme des Garçons, Balenciaga boutiques, Alexander McQueen, Stella McCartney, and Christian Louboutin. Chelsea Market, on the establish floor of the former Nabisco Building, is a address for food lovers. In the late 1990s, New York ‘s ocular arts community began a gradual transition aside from SoHo, ascribable to increasing rents and competition from upscale retailers for the big and aired spaces that art galleries require, [ 33 ] and the area of West Chelsea between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues and 16th and 28th Streets has become a fresh global centers of contemporaneous art, home to over 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both approaching and establish artists. [ 34 ] Along with the artwork galleries, Chelsea is home to the Rubin Museum of Art, with a focus on Himalayan art ; the Graffiti Research Lab and New York Live Arts, a producing and presenting organization of dance and other movement-based arts. The community, in fact, is home plate to many highly see operation venues, among them the Joyce Theater, one of the city ‘s premier modern dance emporiums, and The Kitchen, a center for up-to-date theatrical and ocular arts .
Above 23rd Street, by the Hudson River, the neighborhood is post-industrial, featuring the lift High Line viaduct, which follows the river all through Chelsea. The elevated rail line was the successor to the street-level freight note master built through Chelsea in 1847, which was the cause of numerous fateful accidents, so it was elevated in the early 1930s by the New York Central Railroad. It fell out of habit in the 1960s through 1980 and was originally slated to be torn down, but in the early on 2000s, it was redesigned and converted into a highly used aerial greenbelt and rails-to-trails park. [ 35 ] With a variety in zoning resolution in junction with the development of the High Line, Chelsea experienced a newfangled construction boom, with projects by luminary architects such as Shigeru Ban, Neil Denari, Jean Nouvel, and Frank Gehry. The region was cursorily gentrifying, with small businesses being replaced by big-box retailers and engineering and fashion stores. [ 8 ] With this development, more affluent residents moved in, far widening an already-existing income gap with public-housing residents. In 2015, the average annual family income in most of Chelsea was about $ 140,000. On the other hired hand, in the area ‘s two public-housing developments – the Chelsea-Elliot Houses, between 25th Street, Ninth Avenue, 28th Street, and Tenth Avenue ; and Fulton Houses, between 16th Street, Ninth Avenue, 19th Street, and Tenth Avenue – the average income was less than $ 30,000. [ 8 ] At the same time, the area ‘s Puerto Rican enclaves and rent-subsidized caparison, particularly in Penn South, was being replaced by high-rent studios. This resulted in large income disparities across the neighborhood ; one block in detail – 25th Street between 9th and 10th Avenues – had the Elliot Houses on its north side and two million-dollar residences on its south side. [ 8 ] The Chelsea vicinity is served by two weekly newspapers : the Chelsea-Clinton News and Chelsea Now. West Chelsea refers to the western part of Chelsea, previously known as Gasoline Alley, [ 36 ] much of which was previously a manufacture area and has since been rezoned to allow for high-rise residential uses. It is often considered the area of Chelsea between the Hudson River to the west and Tenth Avenue to the east, a part of which was designated a historic zone in 2008. [ 37 ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate 2008 article in The New York Times showed the easterly boundary of West Chelsea as Eighth Avenue for the area between 14th and 23rd streets, Ninth Avenue between 23rd and 25th, and Tenth Avenue between 25th and 29th. [ 38 ] [ 39 ]
Landmarks and places of interest [edit ]
culinary [edit ]
The Chelsea Market, located in a regenerate historic Nabisco factory and headquarters, is a festival marketplace that hosts a assortment of denounce and dine options, including bakeries, restaurants, a pisces market, wine store, and many others. [ 40 ] The Empire Diner is a former art moderne diner designed by Fodero Dining Car Company. Built in 1946, it was altered in 1979 by Carl Laanes. Located at 210 Tenth Avenue at 22nd Street, it has been seen in several movies and mentioned in Billy Joel ‘s song “ Great Wall of China ”. The dining car closed its doors for effective on May 15, 2010, had a brief stretch as “ The Highliner ”, and most recently re-opened under its original name in January 2014 [ 41 ] before closing permanently in December 2015 due to failures to pay rent. [ 42 ] Peter McManus Cafe, a legal profession and restaurant on Seventh Avenue at 19th Street, is among the oldest family-owned and -operated bars in the city .
cultural [edit ]
Pike ‘s Opera House was built in 1868, and bought the next class by James Fisk and Jay Gould, who renamed it the Grand Opera House. Located on the corner of Eighth Avenue and 23rd Street, it survived until 1960 as an RKO movie dramaturgy. [ 16 ] The Irish Repertory Theatre is an off-broadway theatrical performance company on West 22nd Street producing plays by irish and Irish-American writers. Joyce Theater, located in the former Elgin Theater at 175 Eighth Avenue, is in a 1941 movie house that closed in 1978. The Elgin was completely renovated to create in the Joyce a venue suitable for dance, and was reopened in 1982. [ 43 ] The Kitchen is a performance space at 512 West 19th Street. It was founded in Greenwich Village in 1971 by Steina and Woody Vasulka, taking its list from the original placement, the kitchen of the Mercer Arts Center. [ 44 ] The warehouse construct at 530 West 27th Street, which was the site of The Sound Factory & Twilo, [ 45 ] a well as several early megaclubs in the 1980s and 1990s, was acquired in 2011 by the british theater ship’s company Punchdrunk, who converted it into “ The McKittrick Hotel ”, a five-story, 100,000-square-foot ( 9,300 m2 ) performance distance house their immersive site-specific theatrical product, Sleep No More. The build up, along with those at 532 and 542 West 27th Street, is besides the location of several restaurants and event venues that relate to the themes and stories told in the hotel, such as ‘Speakeasy Magick ‘, featuring Todd Robbins, Jason Suran, and Matthew Holtzclaw. [ 46 ] [ 47 ] [ 48 ] New York Live Arts is a dance constitution located at 219 West 19th Street between 7th and 8th Avenues. [ 49 ] The Rubin Museum of Art is a museum dedicated to the collection, display, and preservation of the artwork of the Himalayas and surrounding regions, specially that of Tibet. It is located at 150 West 17th Street between the Avenue of the Americas ( Sixth Avenue ) and Seventh Avenue .
Industrial and commercial [edit ]
The New York Office of Google occupies the full city barricade between 15th & 16th Streets, and from Eighth to Ninth Avenues. Located in 111 Eighth Avenue, the building was once Inland Terminal 1 of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. [ 50 ] The Starrett-Lehigh Building, a huge full-block freight terminal and warehouse on West 26th Street between Eleventh and Twelfth Avenues, was built in 1930-1931 as a joint guess of the Starett actual estate firm and the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and was engineered thus that trains could pull directly into the ground shock of the build. Designed by Cory & Cory, the industrial giant was so architecturally celebrated that it was included in the Museum of Modern Art ‘s 1932 “ International Style “ exhibition, one of only a few american buildings to be thus honor. It was designated a New York City landmark in 1966. [ 10 ]
The Hudson Yards rail-yard development is located at the northern edge of Chelsea, within the Hudson Yards region. The plan ‘s centerpiece is a mixed-use substantial estate development by related Companies. According to its overlord plan, created by overcome planner Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates, Hudson Yards is expected to consist of 16 skyscrapers containing more than 1.27 million square feet ( 118,000 m2 ) of new office, residential, and retail space. Among its components will be 6 million square feet ( 560,000 m2 ) of commercial office space, a 750,000-square-foot ( 70,000 m2 ) retail kernel with two levels of restaurants, cafe, markets and bars, a hotel, a cultural space, about 5,000 residences, a 750-seat school, and 14 acres ( 5.7 hour angle ) of public open space. The exploitation, located chiefly above and around the West Side Yard, will create a newly vicinity that overlaps with Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen. [ 51 ]
residential [edit ]
Hotel Chelsea, built 1883–1885 and designed by Hubert, Pirsson & Co., was New York ‘s first base cooperative apartment building complex [ 10 ] and was the tallest building in the city until 1902. After the theater zone migrated uptown and the neighborhood became commercialize, the residential build up folded and in 1905 it was turned into a hotel. [ 52 ] The hotel attracted attention as the place where Dylan Thomas had been staying when he died in 1953 at St. Vincent ‘s Hospital in Greenwich Village, and for the 1978 murder of Nancy Spungen for which Sid Vicious was accused. The hotel has been the dwelling of numerous celebrities, including Brendan Behan, Thomas Wolfe, Mark Twain, Tennessee Williams and Virgil Thomson, [ 10 ] and the discipline of books, films ( Chelsea Girls, 1966 ) and music .
The London Terrace apartment complex on West 23rd was one of the world ‘s largest apartment blocks when it opened in 1930, with a liquid consortium, sun parlor, secondary school, and doormen dressed as London bobbies. It was designed by Farrar and Watmough. It takes its appoint from the fashionable mid-19th hundred cottages which were once located there. [ 16 ] Penn South is a boastfully limited-equity house cooperative constructed in 1962 by the United Housing Foundation and financed by the International Ladies ‘ Garment Workers ‘ Union. The development includes 2,820 apartments and covers six city blocks between 8th and 9th Avenue and 23rd and 29th Street. In 2012, there were 6,000 names on a waiting list of prospective residents looking to purchase a unit in the growth. [ 53 ] Under the terms of agreements reached with the City of New York in 1986 and 2002, and individually with the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Penn South ‘s eligibility for tax abatements offered by the Mitchell-Lama Housing Program has been extended to 2052. [ 54 ]
Read more: Mizuno – Wikipedia
early [edit ]
The Chelsea Piers, New York City ‘s chief luxury ocean liner terminal from 1910 until 1935 The Chelsea Piers were the city ‘s primary luxury ocean liner terminal from 1910 until 1935, when the growing size of ships made the complex inadequate. The RMS Titanic was headed to Pier 60 at the piers and the RMS Carpathia brought survivors to Pier 54 in the complex, which was destroyed in 2018 although ironwork remains. The northern piers are now part of an entertainment and sports complex operated by Roland W. Betts, and the southern piers are separate of Hudson River Park. [ 55 ] The Hudson River Park, designed as a joint city/state park with non-traditional uses, runs along the Hudson River waterfront from 59th Street to the Battery and comprises most of the consort piers. [ 56 ] Chelsea Park is located between 9th and 10th Avenues, and between 27th and 28th Streets. It contains baseball diamonds, basketball courts and six handball courts. [ 57 ] Chelsea Studios, a phone stagecoach on 26th Street, has been operating since 1914, and numerous movies and television receiver shows have been produced there. [ 58 ] The Church of the Holy Apostles [ 59 ] was built in 1845–1848 to a design by Minard Lefever, with additions by Lefever in 1853–1854, and transepts by Charles Babcock added in 1858, this Italianate church was designated a New York City landmark in 1966 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is Lefever ‘s lone surviving build up in Manhattan. The build, which featured an octangular steeple, [ 60 ] was burned in a serious fire in 1990, but stained glaze windows by William Jay Bolton survived, and the church reopened in April 1994 after a major restoration. [ 10 ] The Episcopal parish is celebrated for hosting the city ‘s largest plan to feed the poor, [ 61 ] and is the second and larger base of the LGBT -oriented synagogue, Congregation Beth Simchat Torah. [ 62 ]
The General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church ‘s college-like close is sometimes called “ Chelsea Square. ” It consists of a city forget of tree-shaded lawns between Ninth and Tenth Avenues and West 20th and 21st Streets. The campus is ringed by more than a twelve brick and brownstone buildings in Gothic Revival style. The oldest build on the campus dates from 1836. Most of the perch were designed as a group by architect Charles Coolidge Haight, under the guidance of the Dean, Augustus Hoffman. [ 63 ]
Police and crime [edit ]
Chelsea is patrolled by the tenth Precinct of the NYPD, located at 230 West twentieth Street. [ 64 ] The tenth Precinct ranked 61st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. [ 65 ] As of 2018, with a non-fatal rape rate of 34 per 100,000 people, Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen ‘s rate of violent crimes per head is less than that of the city as a whole. The captivity rate of 313 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole. [ 25 ] : 8 The tenth Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 74.8 % between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 1 mangle, 19 rapes, 81 robberies, 103 felony assaults, 78 burglaries, 744 deluxe larcenies, and 26 expansive larcenies car in 2018. [ 66 ]
Fire safety [edit ]
FDNY EMS Station 7 Chelsea is served by two fire stations of the New York City Fire Department ( FDNY ). [ 67 ] Engine Co. 1/Ladder Co. 24 is located at 142 West 31st Street, [ 68 ] while Engine Co. 3/Ladder Co. 12/Battalion 7 is located at 146 West 19th Street. [ 69 ] In accession, FDNY EMS Station 7 is located at 512 West 23rd Street .
Health [edit ]
Preterm births in Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen are the lapp as the city median, though adolescent births are less common. In Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, there were 87 preterm births per 1,000 live births ( compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide ), and 9.9 adolescent births per 1,000 live births ( compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide ). [ 25 ] : 11 Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen have a gloomy population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 11 %, slenderly less than the citywide rate of 12 %. [ 25 ] : 14 The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen is 0.0098 milligrams per cubic meter ( 9.8×10−9 oz/cu foot ), more than the city average. [ 25 ] : 9 Eleven percentage of Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen residents are smokers, which is less than the city average of 14 % of residents being smokers. [ 25 ] : 13 In Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, 10 % of residents are corpulent, 5 % are diabetic, and 18 % have high blood coerce —compared to the citywide averages of 24 %, 11 %, and 28 % respectively. [ 25 ] : 16 In addition, 14 % of children are corpulent, compared to the citywide average of 20 %. [ 25 ] : 12 Ninety-one percentage of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is higher than the city ‘s average of 87 %. In 2018, 86 % of residents described their health as “ good, ” “ very good, ” or “ excellent, ” more than the city ‘s median of 78 %. [ 25 ] : 13 For every supermarket in Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, there are 7 bodegas. [ 25 ] : 10 The nearest major hospitals are Beth Israel Medical Center in Stuyvesant Town, angstrom well as the Bellevue Hospital Center and NYU Langone Medical Center in Kips Bay. [ 70 ] [ 71 ]
Post offices and ZIP Codes [edit ]
united states postal service care facility, 11th avenue Chelsea is located within two primary ZIP Codes. The area union of 24th Street is in 10001 while the area south of 24th Street is in 10011. [ 72 ] The United States Postal Service operates four stake offices in Chelsea :
In addition, the Centralized Parcel Post and the Morgan General Mail Facility are located at 341 9th Avenue. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] The USPS besides operates a fomite care adeptness on the barricade bounded by 11th Avenue, 24th Street, 12th Avenue, and 26th Street. [ 79 ] This facility has the ZIP Code 10199. [ 72 ]
education [edit ]
The Chelsea School Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the stay of the city as of 2018. A majority of residents age 25 and older ( 78 % ) have a college education or higher, while 6 % have less than a high educate education and 17 % are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64 % of Manhattan residents and 43 % of city residents have a college department of education or higher. [ 25 ] : 6 The share of Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen students excelling in mathematics rose from 61 % in 2000 to 80 % in 2011, and reading accomplishment increased from 66 % to 68 % during the same time period. [ 80 ] Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen ‘s rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen, 16 % of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide median of 20 %. [ 26 ] : 24 ( PDF p. 55 ) [ 25 ] : 6 additionally, 81 % of high educate students in Chelsea and Hell ‘s Kitchen alumnus on time, more than the citywide median of 75 %. [ 25 ] : 6
Schools [edit ]
There are numerous populace schools in Chelsea, including PS 11, besides known as the William T. Harris School ; PS 33, the Chelsea School ; the O. Henry School ( IS 70 ) ; Liberty High School For Newcomers ; Lab School ; the Museum School ; and the Bayard Rustin Educational Complex, which houses six minor schools. The Bayard Rustin Educational Complex was founded as Textile High School in 1930, later renamed to Straubenmuller Textile High School, then Charles Evans Hughes High School. In the 1990s, it was renamed the Bayard Rustin High School for the Humanities after civil rights activist Bayard Rustin. [ 81 ] The high school closed in 2012 after a grade scandal, but the build had already started being used as a “ vertical campus ” housing multiple little schools. Quest to Learn, Hudson High School of Learning Technologies, Humanities Preparatory Academy, James Baldwin School, Landmark High School, and Manhattan Business Academy are the six component schools in the building complex. secret schools in the neighborhood include Avenues : The World School, a K-12 educate ; and the Catholic Xavier High School, a secondary school. Chelsea is besides home to the Fashion Institute of Technology, a specialize SUNY unit established in 1944 that serves as a train anchor for the city ‘s fashion and plan industries. [ 82 ] The School of Visual Arts, a for-profit art school, [ 83 ] and the public High School of Fashion Industries besides have a presence in the blueprint fields. The vicinity is besides home plate to the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church, the oldest seminary in the anglican Communion. [ 84 ] The Center for Jewish History, a consortium of several national research organizations, is a unite library, exhibition, conference, lecture, and operation venue, located on 16th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. [ 85 ]
Libraries [edit ]
The New York Public Library ( NYPL ) operates two branches in Chelsea. The Muhlenberg branch is located at 209 West 23rd Street. The three-story Carnegie library build opened in 1906 and was renovated in 2000. [ 86 ] The Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library is located at 40 West twentieth Street. The current build opened in 1990 ; the Library of Congress has designated the Heiskell branch as the city ‘s “ Regional Library of the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped ” for Braille media and audiobooks. [ 87 ]
exile [edit ]
The vicinity is served by the M7, M10, M11, M12, M14 SBS and M23 SBS New York City Bus routes. New York City Subway routes include the 1, 2, and 3 services on Seventh Avenue, the A, C, and E services on Eighth Avenue, and the F,
celebrated people [edit ]
- Andy Bey (born 1939), jazz singer and pianist.
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
- Manhattan Community Board 4—The Chelsea & Clinton/Hell’s Kitchen Community Board
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Bruno Fernandes and Raphael Varane will return when Manchester United and Wolverhampton Wanderers face off on Monday.
Manchester United will be hoping to continue their unbeaten run under Ralf Rangnick when they play hosts to Wolverhampton Wanderers at Old Trafford on Monday evening. And the interim bos has been handed a major hike on the team news front man ahead of his side ’ second latest regular. Bruno Fernandes is back at Rangnick ’ sulfur disposal after serving his one-match suspension earlier this week against Burnley. The Portuguese international ’ randomness return to competition leaves Victor Lindelof and Paul Pogba as the entirely absentees versus Wolves.
In Lindelof ’ s continue absence, Raphael Varane and Harry Maguire will pair up at the heart of the Manchester United defense, with the early replace Eric Bailly in the depart lineup. Out wide, Luke Shaw and Diogo Dalot should be the two full-backs, with the latter coming in for Aaron Wan-Bissaka. In goal, there is no looking by David de Gea. Rangnick should line his side up in his usual 4-2-2-2 formation, and in the double-pivot in midfield, Scott McTominay will probably have Fred as his partner. Nemanja Matic will make room for the brazilian international in the middle of the park. As for the two attacking midfielders, Bruno Fernandes is expected to be reinstated to the starting batting order despite his discrepant performances in recent weeks. Fernandes ’ s playmaking partner will be Jadon Sancho, leaving Marcus Rashford and Mason Greenwood on the bench. While Greenwood and Rashford are options for the hit partnership, they are improbable to start. alternatively, experienced stalwarts Cristiano Ronaldo and Edinson Cavani should retain their tandem in the final third gear. And in his pre-match iron conference, Rangnick spoke about Cavani and Ronaldo.
The Manchester United interim bos said, “ Today, I didn ’ t see any rationality why he shouldn ’ t be able to play another game. physically he seems to be fit. He is doing everything. He is a lead professional, he looks after himself and after his torso, he eats the right things. ” “ At the age of 36 I have never seen a musician at this age, possibly [ Zlatan ] Ibrahimovic is a little bit older but is a different kind of musician, but I don ’ metric ton see why he shouldn ’ thyroxine able to play three games in eight days but if at one stage we need to rest him it is no problem, but then it ’ south even more crucial to have Edinson in the police squad. ” Cavani and Ronaldo should once again combine around the Wolves box, with Rangnick depending on the couple for goals on Monday. Rashford and Greenwood will be options on the bench late in the crippled if required. Predicted Manchester United XI: de Gea ; Dalot, Varane, Maguire, Shaw ; McTominay, Fred ; Bruno Fernandes, Sancho ; Ronaldo, Cavani