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Reading: Liverpool City Region – Wikipedia
The Liverpool City Region is a compound authority region of England, centred on Liverpool, incorporating the local authority zone borough of Halton, Knowsley, Sefton, St Helens, and Wirral. The region is in the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. Depending on the definition used, the region ‘s population is between about 1.5 million and 2.3 million. Since 1 April 2014, the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority has become the top-tier administrative body for the local government of the city region. Through the unite authority, the six districts pool their responsibilities over strategic policy areas such as economic development, transport, use and skills, tourism, culture, caparison, and physical infrastructure. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] No significant powers were devolved from cardinal government. The region ‘s economic development is besides supported by the Liverpool City Region Local Enterprise Partnership ( LEP ), established in 2010 as the secret sector-led board comprising political and clientele leaders from around the city region. [ 3 ]
history [edit ]
The Liverpool city region was one of eight defined in the 2004 document Moving Forward: The Northern Way, [ 4 ] as a collaboration between the three northern Regional Development Agencies. On 13 March 2007, local anesthetic government curate Phil Woolas announced plans to create a “ cabinet ” of the Leaders of the six councils ( Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral ) in a form of regional devolution for what was termed the “ Liverpool City Region ”. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] While a report in the Liverpool Daily Post newspaper on 3 June 2008 suggests a ‘Super Cabinet ‘ design to boost economy in the city area. [ 7 ] In January 2009 an agreement was made that the local authorities of Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral would form the Liverpool City Region, in a Multi-Area Agreement ( MAA ). The agreement led to a transfer, from cardinal government, greater responsibilities in more than 10 areas covering use, skills, transport, re-formation, caparison and plan. Hazel Blears, the Secretary of State for Communities and local Government said : “ today ‘s ‘Liverpool city-region ‘ Multi-Area Agreement will mean Merseyside ‘s six councils will nobelium longer have to work alone on their economy, they will work from the same blueprint with more devolve powers to deliver jobs, training, social welfare defend and economic resilience. ” [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
definition [edit ]
The blend authority of Liverpool City Region includes the local politics districts of Liverpool, Halton, Knowsley, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral. Some definitions of the city area include a a lot wider area. The now-revoked North West of England Regional Spatial Strategy, while defining the city area for “ the purposes of articulating RSS policy ” as covering the six local authorities, besides stated that it “ extends equally far as Chester, Ellesmere Port and Neston and West Lancashire ”. [ 10 ] A 2011 report, Liverpool City Region – Building on its Strengths, by an mugwump working group led by Lord Heseltine and Terry Leahy, stated that “ what is now call Liverpool City Region has a population of around 1.5 million ”, but besides referred to “ an urban region that spreads from Wrexham and Flintshire to Chester, Warrington, West Lancashire and across to Southport ”, with a population of 2.3 million. [ 11 ] The European Union ‘s ESPON calculated the Liverpool metropolitan area to be over 2.3 million people .
government [edit ]
Combined assurance [edit ]
Since the abolition of Merseyside County Council, the councils have co-operated as permitted by the local Government Act 1972 and required by the local Government Act 1985, for case the Merseyside Waste Disposal Authority and the Merseyside Passenger Transport Authority. Liverpool City Region ‘s proposal to cardinal government for a compound authority was approved by Parliamentary statutory order in late March, and it legally came into being from 1 April 2014. Liverpool City Region Combined Authority will become the top-tier administrative consistency of Liverpool City Region. It will be a body bodied responsible for strategic decision induce. The six local anesthetic authorities in the area constituting the combined authority will pool in concert powers over economic development, regeneration and conveyance policy. The compound authority comprises seven members : the council leaders of Halton, Knowsley, Sefton, St Helens and Wirral, the Mayor of Liverpool, and the president, as the representative, of the local enterprise partnership. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] The proposed authority was known as the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority up until submission to the Department for Communities and local Government [ 17 ] and the Greater Merseyside Combined Authority in the publish scheme. The consultation preceding the creation of the combine assurance showed potent support for a diagnose including ‘Liverpool ‘ preferably than ‘Merseyside ‘. [ 18 ] The list was changed to the Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, St Helens, Sefton and Wirral Combined Authority in the conscription order presented to parliament. [ 19 ] On 21 February 2014 it was decided by the part councils that the authority will use the public name of Liverpool City Region Combined Authority. [ 20 ]
Local enterprise partnership [edit ]
The Liverpool City Region Local Enterprise Partnership was established in 2010 and is the local enterprise partnership ( LEP ) for Liverpool City Region. The LEP initiated Mersey Waters Enterprise Zone, which was set up in 2012. The enterprise zone contains two sites, Liverpool Waters and Wirral Waters. [ 21 ]
Members of Parliament [edit ]
economy [edit ]
The Liverpool City Region is strongly established as an important drive coerce in the economy of Northern England and as a strategic ocean and vent gateway to the European Union. It connects to North America, Ireland, the Isle of Man, Europe and beyond ; serving international, national and regional markets, investors and visitors. Liverpool is the UK ‘s fastest growing economy outside London, one of the UK ‘s exceed three biomedical centres, and has the UK ‘s second base largest wealth management diligence. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] The region contains some 49,000 local anesthetic businesses providing 540,000 jobs, generating GVA of £19bn-£22bn, and its economy is worth 17 % of North West England ‘s stallion total. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] The region is largely monocentric with Liverpool as the prevailing employment concentrate, however economic natural process is widely spread across the six districts. broadly speaking Liverpool is the commercial, cultural and transport hub of the region, with Sefton as the base of Seaforth Dock and tourist resort of Southport, Halton as the location for chemical, science, engineering, logistics and distribution companies, and Knowsley, St Helens and Wirral providing key fabricate and logistics for the area. The city of Liverpool itself has a compact Travel to Work Area reflecting its place on the North West Atlantic Seaboard and concentration of the surrounding urban sphere. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The city region is traditionally seen as a servicing sector economy, with its so called cognition economy providing one third of the local employment base and over 40 % of its sum economic value. According to statistics for 2008, the Life sciences sector accounts for about 10 % of the region ‘s economy, over 71,000 people are employed in fiscal and professional services, over 34,000 in manufacture, and about 24,000 in the creative and digital diligence. [ 29 ] The area is powerfully connected to global markets, through its ports, airports and by its many multinational companies. World companies such as Barclays Wealth, Jaguar Land Rover, Maersk, Novartis, Santander, Sony and Unilever, all have a major nucleotide of operation in the vicinity. [ 30 ] Liverpool City Region is closely related economically to the wide functional sphere of Warrington, Cheshire West and Chester, Ellesmere Port, North East Wales, Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, and West Lancashire.
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Over the coming decades, the city region plans to deliver some of the UK ‘s largest and most ambitious exploitation and infrastructure schemes, representing a development value in excess of £30bn. [ 31 ]
- Planned schemes include
transport [edit ]
The Liverpool City Region has a highly advanced and across-the-board transport network, and is extremely well connected locally, nationally, and internationally by road, rail, sea and vent .
road [edit ]
Motorway network around the Liverpool City Region The region is served by a network of 6 motorways ( M58 to the North, M56 to the South, M6 & M62 to the East and M53 to the west ). In addition, the M57 acts as an forbidden ring road and beltway for the city of Liverpool itself. The area has relatively low road congestion and its cardinal localization makes it a highly effective base from which to service the whole country. [ 34 ] Various parts of the region are separated by the River Mersey, and as a result, Wirral is connected to the centre of Liverpool via the Queensway Tunnel and Kingsway Tunnel, whereas Widnes and Runcorn are connected by the Silver Jubilee Bridge. A second six lane bell bridge under the name Mersey Gateway, to relieve congestion on the ageing Silver Jubilee Bridge, opened in 2017. The bridge is designed to improve tape drive links between Widnes and Runcorn and other key locations in the vicinity. [ 35 ]
rail [edit ]
typical Merseyrail train at Liverpool Central underground station Liverpool Lime Street, the region ‘s chief terminal aim station, is served by five aim operating companies serving a wide variety show of destinations, and is used by 11.8 million passengers per year. [ 36 ] Chester railway station is the second largest station in the region with direct services to London. Both stations are on the Liverpool-centric Merseyrail urban rail network. excellent train connectivity, peculiarly since the upgrade to the West Coast Main Line and investment in high accelerate Pendolino trains, means travel time to London Euston is within 2 hours via Avanti West Coast. [ 37 ] East Midlands Railway serves Norwich, Manchester, Sheffield and Nottingham. [ 38 ] TransPennine Express operates daily services to Leeds, Middlesbrough, Hull, York, and Newcastle. Northern operates to Huddersfield, Preston, Warrington, and Blackpool, whilst direct links to Birmingham are possible via West Midlands Trains. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] The sub-regional railing network is operated by Merseytravel, the combined Passenger Transport Executive and Integrated Transport Authority for Merseyside, and populace sector body responsible for the coordination of public ecstasy across Liverpool city region, except Halton. Merseyrail is an urban network of vital importance to the enchant infrastructure of the city region operating about 800 trains per day carrying over 100,000 passengers, on its network of 67 stations. The Merseyrail network is the most intensively used commuter network outside London and includes five underground stations in Liverpool City Centre and Birkenhead kernel. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] The UK government has insisted that the region will benefit from Britain ‘s new high-speed track network, due for completion by 2032, even though the new line will not extend into the region. [ 43 ] Journey times to London from Liverpool would be cut by 32 minutes under the proposals. imperativeness is being put on the government to extend high amphetamine rail into Liverpool ‘s city center. [ 44 ]
Sea [edit ]
The city region is located on the North West Atlantic Seaboard, and is one of Northern England ‘s most vital gateways for both freight and seafaring passengers. The Port of Liverpool is one of Northern Europe ‘s largest container ports and principal ports for trade with the United States and Canada. The port handles over 33 million tonnes of freight cargo per class and serves more than 100 global destinations including Africa, Australia, China, India, the Middle East and South America. Imports of ingrain and animal feed and exports of rubbish alloy for recycling are greater than any other UK port, and traffic crossing the quays includes timber, steel, char, cocoa, crude petroleum, edible oils and liquid chemicals. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] Major investing, including a second container terminal dubbed ‘ Liverpool 2 ‘ at Seaforth, will be designed to handle the largest Post-Panamax vessels and will double the port ‘s capacity. [ 47 ] about three quarters of a million people travel on Irish Sea ferry services from Liverpool Docks and Birkenhead ‘s Twelve Quays to Belfast, Dublin and the Isle of Man, and there is a growing number of cruise ships making day calls at the port. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] A new terminal at Prince ‘s Dock is due to open in May 2012 to provide check-in, baggage sink and reclaim, a well as customs and border facilities for thousands of cruise liner passengers visiting the region, whilst Peel Ports have besides planned a second cruise terminal as part of the Liverpool Waters project. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] The Mersey Ferry offers regular commuter services between Wirral and Liverpool City Centre, with 684,000 passengers using the service in 2009–2010. [ 52 ]
Air [edit ]
Global air connectivity to and from the area is provided by two international airports, Liverpool John Lennon Airport ( LJLA ), and Manchester Airport. Liverpool John Lennon Airport, situated 9 miles south of Liverpool City Centre, has seen massive growth over the last decade and handles good over 5 million passengers annually, making it one of the UK ‘s top 10 busiest airports. Its two main airlines easyJet and Ryanair provide a wealth of low-cost air flights to and from most major european cities, and over 70 destinations are served by the airport overall, including unconstipated flights to the Near East and North Africa. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] about all the air traffic is generated by low-cost scheduled carriers to short-haul destinations across Europe and there are presently no long haul services operating from the airport, however, up until 2012 Dutch airline KLM had provided a daily link to its Amsterdam hub at Schiphol which offered a feeder service to over 650 long haul routes across the globe. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Following the abeyance of the service, airport bosses signalled that they will find an alternative european hub airport in the near future to continue to provide international connecting flights from Liverpool. [ 58 ] This was late found in 2015 when Aer Lingus began send flights to Dublin opening up routes to North America and Asia. As character of LJLA ‘s Master Plan, the airport is planning for significant expansion and is forecast to handle more than 12 million passengers by 2030, american samoa well as targeting permanent send hanker haul flights and significantly larger terminal facilities. [ 59 ]
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television receiver [edit ]
The Liverpool City Region is covered by BBC North West and ITV Granada. additionally, as of late 2013 the city area, along with Wigan and parts of Cheshire is covered by local television channel Liverpool television. The transmit broadcasts over 35 hours of local content per week, along with a rate of other content from across the net. The channel is available entirely on Freeview groove 7 in the Liverpool City region and besides nationally on Sky and Virgin TV .