Island state in East Asia

Japan ( japanese : 日本, Nippon or Nihon, [ niobium 1 ] and formally 日本国 ) [ nb 2 ] is an island area in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a depart of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 hearty kilometers ( 145,937 sq nautical mile ) ; the five chief islands are Hokkaido, Honshu ( the “ mainland ” ), Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation ‘s capital and largest city ; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the earth, vitamin a well as one of the most dumbly populate and urbanize. About three-fourths of the area ‘s terrain is cragged, concentrating its population of 125.36 million on narrow-minded coastal plains. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.4 million residents. Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period ( 30,000 BC ), though the first written mention of the archipelago appears in a taiwanese chronicle ( the Book of Han ) finished in the second hundred AD. Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unite under an emperor and the imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Beginning in the twelfth century, political ability was held by a serial of military dictators ( shōgun ) and feudal lords ( daimyō ), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility ( samurai ). After a century-long menstruation of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa dictatorship, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. In 1854, a United States evanesce forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the dictatorship and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-modeled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. In 1937, Japan invaded China ; in 1941, it entered World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. Under the 1947 fundamental law, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Japan is a big power and a extremity of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations ( since 1956 ), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, the state maintains self-defense Forces that rank as one of the world ‘s strong militaries. After World War II, Japan experienced record emergence in an economic miracle, becoming the second-largest economy in the universe by 1990. As of 2021, the country ‘s economy is the third-largest by noun phrase GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. Ranked “ very high ” on the Human Development Index, Japan has one of the world ‘s highest life expectancies, though it is experiencing a decay in population. A ball-shaped leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. The culture of Japan is well known around the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses big comic, animation and television plot industries .


Japanese name
Kanji 日本国
Hiragana にっぽんこく
Katakana ニッポンコク
Kyūjitai 日本國

The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and is pronounced Nippon or Nihon. [ 9 ] Before 日本 was adopted in the early eighth century, the country was known in China as Wa ( 倭 ) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. [ 10 ] Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese read of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. [ 9 ] Nihon is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in japanese phonology during the Edo menstruation. [ 10 ] The characters 日本 mean “ sunday origin ”, [ 9 ] which is the generator of the popular Western epithet “ Land of the Rising Sun ”. [ 11 ] The name Japan is based on the chinese pronunciation of 日本 and was introduced to european languages through early trade. In the thirteenth hundred, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. [ 12 ] The erstwhile Malay identify for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal taiwanese dialect and encountered by portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early on sixteenth century. [ 13 ] The first version of the name in English appears in a reserve published in 1577, which spelled the diagnose as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 portuguese letter. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]


Prehistoric to classical music history

A paleolithic age culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the foremost known dwelling of the islands of Japan. [ 16 ] This was followed from around 14,500 BC ( the start of the Jōmon period ) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit harp and vestigial department of agriculture. [ 17 ] Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. [ 18 ] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon ; [ 19 ] the Yayoi period saw the insertion of practices including wet-rice grow, [ 20 ] a fresh style of pottery, [ 21 ] and metallurgy from China and Korea. [ 22 ] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu ( grandson of Amaterasu ) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial argumentation. [ 23 ] Japan first appears in written history in the chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje ( a Korean kingdom ) in 552, but the exploitation of japanese Buddhism was chiefly influenced by China. [ 24 ] Despite early on resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the regnant class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance begin in the Asuka period ( 592–710 ). [ 25 ] The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalize all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a family register as the basis for a newfangled arrangement of tax. [ 26 ] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for far administrative reforms. [ 27 ] These reforms culminated with the announcement of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the social organization of the cardinal and subordinate local governments. [ 26 ] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a organization of Chinese-style centralize government that remained in locate for half a millennium. [ 27 ] The Nara period ( 710–784 ) marked the emergence of a japanese submit centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō ( advanced Nara ). The time period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki ( 712 ) and Nihon Shoki ( 720 ), vitamin a well as the growth of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed vitamin a much as one-third of Japan ‘s population. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō ( contemporary Kyoto ) in 794. [ 29 ] This marked the begin of the Heian time period ( 794–1185 ), during which a distinctly autochthonal japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu ‘s The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan ‘s national hymn “Kimigayo” were written during this time. [ 31 ]

Feudal era

Japan ‘s feudal era was characterized by the egress and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. [ 32 ] In 1185, following the get the better of of the Taira kin in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura. [ 33 ] After Yoritomo ‘s death, the Hōjō kin came to baron as regents for the shōgun. [ 29 ] The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period ( 1185–1333 ) and became popular among the samurai classify. [ 34 ] The Kamakura dictatorship repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was finally overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. [ 29 ] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period ( 1336–1573 ). [ 35 ] The succeeding Ashikaga dictatorship failed to control the feudal warlords ( daimyō ) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ( “ Warring States ” ). [ 36 ] During the sixteenth century, portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. [ 29 ] [ 37 ] Oda Nobunaga used European engineering and firearms to conquer many early daimyō ; [ 38 ] his consolidation of ability began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. [ 39 ] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the state in the early 1590s and launched two abortive invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. [ 29 ] Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi ‘s son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military documentation. [ 40 ] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated equal clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa dictatorship at Edo ( modern Tokyo ). [ 41 ] The dictatorship enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyō, [ 42 ] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ( “ closed state ” ) policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of flimsy political one known as the Edo period ( 1603–1868 ). [ 41 ] [ 43 ] Modern Japan ‘s economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water department of transportation routes, american samoa good as fiscal instruments such as futures contracts, bank and policy of the Osaka rice brokers. [ 44 ] The study of western sciences ( rangaku ) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. [ 41 ] The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku ( “ national studies ” ), the study of Japan by the Japanese. [ 45 ]

Modern earned run average

In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the “ Black Ships “ of the United States Navy forced the open of Japan to the outdoor world with the Convention of Kanagawa. [ 41 ] Subsequent like treaties with early western countries brought economic and political crises. [ 41 ] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the constitution of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor ( the Meiji Restoration ). [ 46 ] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. [ 47 ] During the Meiji period ( 1868–1912 ), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most develop nation in Asia and as an industrialize earth might that pursued military dispute to expand its sphere of charm. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] After victories in the first Sino-Japanese War ( 1894–1895 ) and the Russo-Japanese War ( 1904–1905 ), Japan gained dominance of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. [ 51 ] [ 47 ] The japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant fault to urbanization. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The early twentieth hundred saw a menstruation of Taishō democracy ( 1912–1926 ) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and mobilization. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the triumphant Allies, to capture german possessions in the Pacific and in China. [ 55 ] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups. [ 53 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] This action accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a phone number of root nationalist groups that shared a hostility to broad democracy and a commitment to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria ; following external conviction of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. [ 58 ] In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany ; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. [ 53 ]
Japan ‘s imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country ‘s surrender to the Allies. The Empire of Japan invaded early parts of China in 1937, precipitating the second Sino-Japanese War ( 1937–1945 ). [ 59 ] In 1940, the Empire invaded french Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. [ 53 ] [ 60 ] On December 7–8, 1941, japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, equally well as on british forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific. [ 61 ] Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery. [ 62 ] After Allied victories during the adjacent four years, which culminated in the soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an categoric surrender. [ 63 ] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. [ 53 ] The Allies ( led by the United States ) repatriated millions of japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the japanese conglomerate and its influence over the territories it conquered. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute japanese leaders for war crimes. [ 65 ] In 1947, Japan adopted a fresh constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. [ 65 ] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, [ 66 ] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. [ 65 ] A period of commemorate growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world ; [ 65 ] this ended in the mid-1990s after the pop of an asset price bubble, beginning the “ Lost Decade ”. [ 67 ] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its record history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe. [ 68 ] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era. [ 69 ]


Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific slide of Asia. It stretches over 3000 kilometer ( 1900 nautical mile ) northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] The area ‘s five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. [ 72 ] The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands of Japan. together they are much known as the japanese archipelago. [ 73 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s territory is 377,975.24 km2 ( 145,937.06 sq security service ). [ 1 ] Japan has the sixth-longest coastline in the populace at 29,751 kilometer ( 18,486 myocardial infarction ). Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the one-sixth largest exclusive Economic zone in the populace, covering 4,470,000 km2 ( 1,730,000 sq mi ). [ 74 ] [ 75 ] The japanese archipelago is 66.4 % forests, 12.8 % agrarian and 4.8 % residential ( 2002 ). [ 76 ] The chiefly rugged and mountainous terrain is restricted for habitation. [ 77 ] Thus the habitable zones, chiefly in the coastal areas, have identical high population densities : Japan is the fortieth most densely populate country. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Honshu has the highest population concentration at 450 persons/km2 ( 1,200/sq mile ) as of 2010, while Hokkaido has the lowest concentration of 64.5 persons/km2 as of 2016. [ 80 ] As of 2014, approximately 0.5 % of Japan ‘s sum area is reclaimed land ( umetatechi ). [ 81 ] Lake Biwa is an ancient lake and the country ‘s largest fresh water lake. [ 82 ] Japan is well prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanic eruptions because of its placement along the Pacific Ring of Fire. [ 83 ] It has the 17th highest natural calamity gamble as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. [ 84 ] Japan has 111 active volcanoes. [ 85 ] Destructive earthquakes, frequently resulting in tsunami, happen several times each century ; [ 86 ] the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed all over 140,000 people. [ 87 ] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a big tsunami. [ 68 ]


The climate of Japan is predominantly moderate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very affectionate to cool summers. precipitation is not heavy, but the islands normally develop thick snowbanks in the winter. [ 88 ] In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu ‘s west slide, northwesterly winter winds bring arduous snow during winter. In the summer, the area sometimes experiences highly hot temperatures because of the fohn. [ 89 ] The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing meek weather year-round. [ 88 ] The Pacific slide features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with periodic snow and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. precipitation is very intemperate, specially during the showery season. [ 88 ] The main showery season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain movement gradually moves union. In belated summer and early fall, typhoons often bring heavy rain. [ 90 ] According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rain and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. [ 91 ] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C ( 106.0 °F ), was recorded on July 23, 2018, [ 92 ] and repeated on August 17, 2020. [ 93 ]


Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical damp broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and blend forests in the balmy climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. [ 94 ] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife as of 2019, [ 95 ] including the brown university bear, the japanese macaque, the japanese raccoon chase, the little japanese field mouse, and the japanese colossus salamander. [ 96 ] A boastfully net of national parks has been established to protect crucial areas of flora and fauna adenine well as 52 Ramsar wetland sites. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural rate. [ 99 ]


In the period of rapid economic increase after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the politics and industrial corporations ; as a result, environmental contamination was far-flung in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental protection laws in 1970. [ 100 ] The anoint crisis in 1973 besides encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan ‘s miss of natural resources. [ 101 ] As of 2020, more than 22 coal-fired ability plants are planned for construction in Japan, following the switching-off of Japan ‘s nuclear evanesce after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear catastrophe. [ 102 ] Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a state ‘s commitment to environmental sustainability. [ 103 ] Japan is the earth ‘s one-fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. [ 91 ] As the host and signer of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take early steps to curb climate switch. [ 104 ] In 2020 the government of Japan announced a prey of carbon-neutrality by 2050. [ 105 ] Environmental issues include urban air befoulment ( NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics ), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and external co-operation for conservation. [ 106 ]


Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial function. [ 107 ] Executive might is alternatively wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the japanese people. [ 108 ] Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his church father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019. [ 107 ]
Japan ‘s legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral fantan. [ 107 ] It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. [ 109 ] There is universal right to vote for adults over 18 years of age, [ 110 ] with a confidential vote for all elected offices. [ 108 ] The prime minister as the pass of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. [ 109 ] Fumio Kishida is Japan ‘s prime minister ; he took function after winning the 2021 Liberal Democratic Party leadership election. [ 111 ] historically influenced by chinese law, the japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. [ 112 ] Since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the german Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. [ 113 ] The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the worldly concern. [ 114 ] Statutory police originates in the legislature, and the united states constitution requires that the emperor proclaim legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the baron to oppose legislation. The main body of japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [ 112 ] Japan ‘s court system is divided into four basic tiers : the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. [ 115 ]

administrative divisions

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each oversee by an elected governor and legislature. [ 107 ] In the adopt table, the prefectures are grouped by region : [ 116 ]

Prefectures of Japan with color regions Hokkaido
1. hokkaido
2. Aomori
3. Iwate
4. Miyagi
5. Akita
6. Yamagata
7. Fukushima
8. Ibaraki
9. Tochigi
10. Gunma
11. Saitama
12. Chiba
13. Tokyo
14. Kanagawa
15. Niigata
16. Toyama
17. Ishikawa
18. Fukui
19. Yamanashi
20. Nagano
21. Gifu
22. Shizuoka
23. Aichi
24. Mie
25. Shiga
26. Kyoto
27. Osaka
28. Hyōgo
29. Nara
30. Wakayama
31. Tottori
32. Shimane
33. Okayama
34. Hiroshima
35. Yamaguchi
36. Tokushima
37. Kagawa
38. Ehime
39. Kōchi
40. Fukuoka
41. Saga
42. Nagasaki

43. Kumamoto
44. Ōita
45. Miyazaki
46. Kagoshima
47. okinawa

foreign relations

Japan is a member of both the G7 and the G20 A penis state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the Security Council. [ 117 ] Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and “ ASEAN Plus Three “, and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. [ 118 ] It is the world ‘s fifth largest donor of official development aid, donating US $ 9.2 billion in 2014. [ 119 ] In 2019, Japan had the fourth-largest diplomatic network in the world. [ 120 ] Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. [ 121 ] The United States is a major market for japanese exports and a major source of japanese imports, and is committed to defending the nation, with military bases in Japan. [ 121 ] Japan signed a security treaty with Australia in March 2007 [ 122 ] and with India in October 2008. [ 123 ] Japan ‘s relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan ‘s treatment of Koreans during japanese colonial predominate, particularly over the issue of consolation women. In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the quilt women dispute with South Korea by issuing a dinner dress apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. [ 124 ] As of 2019 Japan is a major importer of korean music ( K-pop ), television receiver ( K-dramas ), and early cultural products. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan contests Russia ‘s restraint of the Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. [ 127 ] South Korea ‘s control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. [ 128 ] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. [ 129 ]


Japan is the second-highest-ranked asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. [ 130 ] Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any area in the world. [ 131 ] The country ‘s military ( the Japan Self-Defense Forces ) is restricted by Article 9 of the japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan ‘s right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. [ 132 ] The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and chiefly consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first oversea use of Japan ‘s military since World War II. [ 133 ] The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the institution of the National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. [ 134 ] In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passivity it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more duty for regional security. [ 135 ] Recent tensions, peculiarly with North Korea and China, have reignited the consider over the condition of the JSDF and its sexual intercourse to japanese society. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ]

domestic law enforcement

domestic security system in Japan is provided chiefly by the prefectural patrol departments, under the supervision of the National Police Agency. [ 139 ] As the central coordinate body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. [ 140 ] The special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. [ 141 ] The Japan Coast Guard guards territorial waters surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, plagiarism, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration. [ 142 ] The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law rigorously regulates the civilian ownership of guns, swords and other weaponry. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the penis states of the UN that report statistics as of 2018, the incidence rates of crimson crimes such as mangle, abduction, sexual ferocity and looting are identical low in Japan. [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ]


Japan is the third-largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of noun phrase GDP, [ 149 ] and the fourth-largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing exponent parity as of 2019. [ 150 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s department of labor coerce consisted of 67 million workers. [ 109 ] Japan has a broken unemployment pace of around 2.4 percentage. [ 109 ] Around 16 percentage of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. [ 151 ] Japan today has the highest ratio of public debt to GDP of any develop nation, [ 152 ] [ 153 ] with national debt at 236 % relative to GDP as of 2017. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] The japanese yen is the populace ‘s third-largest reserve currentness ( after the US dollar and the euro ). [ 156 ] Japan ‘s exports amounted to 18.5 % of GDP in 2018. [ 157 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s chief export markets were the United States ( 19.8 percentage ) and China ( 19.1 percentage ). [ 109 ] Its main exports are drive vehicles, iron and sword products, semiconductors and car parts. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s independent consequence markets as of 2019 were China ( 23.5 percentage ), the United States ( 11 percentage ), and Australia ( 6.3 percentage ). [ 109 ] Japan ‘s main imports are machinery and equipment, dodo fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and bare-assed materials for its industries. [ 109 ] Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 still of doing business index. [ 158 ] The japanese random variable of capitalism has many distinct features : keiretsu enterprises are influential, and life employment and seniority-based career promotion are coarse in the japanese work environment. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] Japan has a large accommodative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer accommodative and the largest agrarian cooperative in the earth as of 2018. [ 161 ] Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016. [ 162 ] [ 163 ]

farming and fishery

The japanese agrarian sector accounts for about 1.2 % of the total country ‘s GDP as of 2018. [ 109 ] only 11.5 % of Japan ‘s kingdom is desirable for cultivation. [ 164 ] Because of this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. [ 165 ] This results in one of the earth ‘s highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agrarian autonomy rate of about 50 % as of 2018. [ 166 ] Japan ‘s little agrarian sector is highly subsidized and protected. [ 167 ] There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a unmanageable time finding successors. [ 168 ] Japan ranked seventh in the populace in tonnage of fish catch and captured 3,167,610 measured tons of fish in 2016, gloomy from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous ten. [ 169 ] Japan maintains one of the populace ‘s largest fishing fleets and accounts for about 15 % of the ball-shaped capture, [ 74 ] prompting critiques that Japan ‘s fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. [ 170 ] Japan has sparked controversy by supporting commercial whale. [ 171 ]


Japan has a big industrial capacity and is dwelling to some of the “ largest and most technologically advance producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, sword and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods “. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5 % of its GDP. [ 74 ] The nation ‘s fabricate output signal is the one-third highest in the universe as of 2019. [ 173 ] Japan is the third-largest car producer in the global as of 2017 and is home to Toyota, the world ‘s largest car ship’s company. [ 172 ] [ 174 ] The japanese shipbuilding industry faces competition from South Korea and China ; a 2020 government first step identified this sector as a target for increasing exports. [ 175 ]

Services and tourism

Japan ‘s service sector accounts for about 70 % of its total economic end product as of 2019. [ 176 ] Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, – NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. [ 179 ] For inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 11th in the world in 2019. [ 180 ] The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries, which was the highest in Asia. [ 181 ]

skill and engineering

Japan is a leading state in scientific research, peculiarly in the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index and 16th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 15th in 2019. [ 182 ] Relative to gross domestic product, Japan ‘s inquiry and development budget is the second highest in the earth, [ 183 ] with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen inquiry and development budget as of 2017. [ 184 ] The area has produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicate, [ 185 ] and three Fields medalists. [ 186 ] Japan leads the worldly concern in robotics production and use, supplying 55 % of the world ‘s 2017 total. [ 187 ] Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per head in the worldly concern with 14 per 1000 employees. [ 188 ] The japanese consumer electronics diligence, once considered the strongest in the worldly concern, is in a state of decline as contest arises in countries like South Korea and China. [ 189 ] however, video recording gambling in Japan remains a major diligence. In 2014, Japan ‘s consumer video game market grossed $ 9.6 billion, with $ 5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming. [ 190 ] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan ‘s home space means ; it conducts space, planetal, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. [ 191 ] It is a player in the International Space Station : the japanese Experiment Module ( Kibō ) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. [ 192 ] The space probe Akatsuki was launched in 2010 and achieved sphere around Venus in 2015. [ 193 ] Japan ‘s plans in space exploration include building a daydream basal and bring astronauts by 2030. [ 194 ] In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE ( Selenological and Engineering Explorer ) from Tanegashima Space Center. The largest lunar deputation since the Apollo platform, its aim was to gather data on the moon ‘s beginning and evolution. The internet explorer entered a lunar sphere on October 4, 2007, [ 195 ] [ 196 ] and was measuredly crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009. [ 197 ]



Japan has invested heavily in transportation system infrastructure. [ 198 ] The nation has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers ( 750,000 miles ) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers ( 620,000 miles ) of city, town and village roads, 130,000 kilometers ( 81,000 miles ) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers ( 34,011 miles ) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers ( 4748 miles ) of home expressways as of 2017. [ 199 ] Since denationalization in 1987, [ 200 ] dozens of japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets ; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. The high-speed Shinkansen ( bullet trains ) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [ 201 ] There are 175 airports in Japan as of 2013. [ 74 ] The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was Asia ‘s second-busiest airport in 2019. [ 202 ] The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the global, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively as of 2017. [ 203 ]


As of 2017, 39 % of department of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25 % from coal, 23 % from natural gasoline, 3.5 % from hydropower and 1.5 % from nuclear power. nuclear might was gloomy from 11.2 percentage in 2010. [ 204 ] By May 2012 all of the nation ‘s nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to avail. [ 205 ] The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, [ 206 ] and since then respective other nuclear office plants have been restarted. [ 207 ] Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and has a dense dependence on imported energy. [ 208 ] The nation has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high gear levels of energy efficiency. [ 209 ]

Water issue and sanitation

responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water issue for domestic manipulation ; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in consign of water system resources development adenine well as sanitation ; the Ministry of the Environment, in care of ambient water quality and environmental preservation ; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in charge of operation benchmarking of utilities. [ 210 ] Access to an improved water system informant is universal in Japan. About 98 % of the population receives pipe water supply from public utilities. [ 211 ]


Japan has a population of 125.7 million, of which 123.2 million are japanese nationals ( 2020 estimates ). [ 212 ] A small population of foreign residents makes up the remainder. [ 213 ] In 2019, 92 % of the total japanese population lived in cities. [ 214 ] The capital city Tokyo has a population of 14.0 million ( 2021 ). [ 215 ] It is separate of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the populace with 38,140,000 people ( 2016 ). [ 216 ] cultural minority groups in Japan include the autochthonal Ainu and Ryukyuan people. [ 217 ] Zainichi Koreans, [ 218 ] Chinese, [ 219 ] Filipinos, [ 220 ] Brazilians by and large of japanese descent, [ 221 ] and Peruvians by and large of japanese descent are besides among Japan ‘s little minority groups. [ 222 ] Burakumin make up a social minority group. [ 223 ] Japan has the second-longest overall life anticipation at parturition of any state in the world, at 84 years as of 2019. [ 224 ] The japanese population is quickly aging as a result of a post–World War II pamper boom followed by a decrease in parturition rates. [ 225 ] As of 2019 over 20 percentage of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. [ 226 ] The changes in demographic structure have created a count of social issues, peculiarly a decline in work force population and increase in the cost of social security benefits. [ 226 ] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] Japan ‘s population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2060. [ 228 ] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the state ‘s aging population. [ 229 ] [ 230 ] On April 1, 2019, Japan ‘s revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of alien workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. [ 231 ]


Japan ‘s constitution guarantees full religious freedom. [ 232 ] Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percentage of the japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its autochthonal religion. [ 233 ] however, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, preferably than the number of true believers. many japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism ; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or religious. [ 234 ] The horizontal surface of engagement in religious ceremonies as a cultural custom remains high, specially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine chew the fat of the New Year. [ 235 ] taoism and confucianism from China have besides influenced japanese beliefs and customs. [ 236 ] Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. nowadays, 1 % [ 237 ] to 1.5 % of the population are Christians. [ 238 ] Throughout the latest century, western customs originally related to Christianity ( including western style weddings, Valentine ‘s Day and Christmas ) have become popular as secular customs among many japanese. [ 239 ] about 90 % of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants as of 2016. [ 240 ] As of 2018 there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically japanese. [ 241 ] early minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, angstrom well as the animist belief of the Ainu. [ 242 ]


Kanji and hiragana signs andsigns japanese writing uses kanji ( chinese characters ) and two sets of kana ( syllabaries based on cursive handwriting and radical of kanji ), american samoa well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. [ 243 ] English teaching was made compulsory in japanese elementary schools in 2020. [ 244 ] Besides japanese, the Ryukyuan languages ( Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni ), part of the Japonic terminology family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. [ 245 ] few children learn these languages, [ 246 ] but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. [ 247 ] The Ainu linguistic process, which is a linguistic process isolate, is moribund, with lone a few native speakers remaining as of 2014. [ 248 ]


primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. [ 249 ] Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior gamey school, which together last for nine years. [ 250 ] Almost all children continue their education at a three-year elder high gear school. [ 251 ] The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. [ 252 ] Starting in April 2016, diverse schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program ; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted countrywide. [ 253 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA ) coordinated by the OECD ranks the cognition and skills of japanese 15-year-olds as the third base best in the world. [ 254 ] Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average scholar scoring 529 and has one of the world ‘s highest-educated undertaking forces among OECD countries. [ 255 ] [ 254 ] [ 256 ] As of 2017, Japan ‘s public spend on education amounted to equitable 3.3 percentage of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percentage. [ 257 ] In 2017, the area ranked third base for the share of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percentage. [ 258 ] approximately 60 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor ‘s degrees are held by 30.4 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. [ 258 ]


Health care is provided by national and local anesthetic governments. payment for personal checkup services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without policy through employers can participate in a national health insurance platform administered by local governments. [ 259 ] Since 1973, all aged persons have been covered by government-sponsored indemnity. [ 260 ] Japan has one of the worldly concern ‘s highest suicide rates. [ 261 ] Another significant populace health publish is smoking among japanese men. [ 262 ] Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the develop populace. [ 263 ]


contemporaneous japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. [ 264 ] traditional japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls ; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo ; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a originate system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. [ 265 ] Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance. [ 99 ]

artwork and computer architecture

The history of japanese painting expose deduction and competition between native japanese esthetics and imported ideas. [ 266 ] The interaction between japanese and european art has been significant : for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the nineteenth century in the movement known as Japonism, had a meaning charm on the development of modern artwork in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. [ 266 ] japanese manga developed in the twentieth hundred and have become democratic worldwide. [ 267 ] [ 268 ] japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mire plaster structures, elevated slenderly off the grind, with tiled or thatched roof. [ 269 ] The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of japanese computer architecture. [ 270 ] Traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the eminence between rooms and indoor and outdoor quad. [ 271 ] Since the nineteenth century, Japan has incorporated much of western modern architecture into construction and design. [ 272 ] It was not until after World War II that japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, first with the ferment of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism. [ 273 ]

literature and philosophy

The earliest works of japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man’yōshū poetry anthology, all from the eighth hundred and written in chinese characters. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] In the early on Heian period, the arrangement of phonograms known as kana ( hiragana and katakana ) was developed. [ 276 ] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant japanese narrative. [ 277 ] An explanation of court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the global ‘s first fresh. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] During the Edo period, the chōnin ( “ town ” ) overtook the samurai nobility as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this switch in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai ( haiku ) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. [ 280 ] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as japanese literature integrate western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early on twentieth hundred, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun’ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata ( 1968 ) and Kenzaburō Ōe ( 1994 ). [ 281 ] japanese doctrine has historically been a fusion of both foreign, peculiarly taiwanese and western, and uniquely japanese elements. In its literary forms, japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. confucian ideals remain discernible in the japanese concept of company and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. [ 282 ] Buddhism has profoundly impacted japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics. [ 283 ]

Performing arts

Noh performance at a Shinto shrine performance at a Shinto enshrine japanese music is eclectic and diverse. many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and tenth centuries. The democratic family music, with the guitar-like samisen, dates from the sixteenth hundred. [ 284 ] western classical music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, forms an integral part of japanese culture. [ 285 ] Kumi-daiko ( ensemble drum ) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. [ 286 ] Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavy influenced by American and european trends, which has led to the development of J-pop. [ 287 ] Karaoke is a meaning cultural activity. [ 288 ] The four traditional theaters from Japan are noh, kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku. [ 289 ] Noh is one of the oldest continuous field traditions in the world. [ 290 ]

Customs and holidays

Ishin-denshin ( 以心伝心 ) is a japanese artistic style which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unexpressed common sympathy. [ 291 ] Isagiyosa ( 潔さ ) is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the brevity of the world. [ 292 ] Hansei ( 反省 ) is a central idea in japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one ‘s own error and to pledge improvement. Kotodama ( 言霊 ) refers to the japanese impression that mysterious powers dwell in words and names. [ 293 ] officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law ( 国民の祝日に関する法律, Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu ) of 1948. [ 294 ] Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a issue of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. [ 295 ] The national holidays in Japan are New Year ‘s Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor ‘s Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children ‘s Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the third base Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the moment Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23. [ 296 ]


japanese cuisine offers a huge array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. [ 297 ] Seafood and japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. [ 298 ] Japanese curry, since its initiation to Japan from British India, is so wide consumed that it can be termed a national serve, aboard ramen and sushi. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] Traditional japanese sweets are known as wagashi. [ 302 ] Ingredients such as loss bean paste and mochi are used. More contemporary tastes includes green tea ice skim. [ 303 ] popular japanese beverages include sake, which is a brew rice beverage that typically contains 14–17 % alcohol and is made by multiple zymosis of rice. [ 304 ] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late seventeenth century. [ 305 ] Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the japanese tea ceremony. [ 306 ]


According to the 2015 NHK survey on television receiver screening in Japan, 79 percentage of japanese watch television daily. [ 307 ] japanese television drama are viewed both within Japan and internationally ; [ 308 ] other popular shows are in the genres of assortment shows, comedy, and news program programs. [ 309 ] japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world as of 2016. [ 310 ] Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. [ 311 ] Ishirō Honda ‘s Godzilla became an international picture of Japan and spawned an integral subgenre of kaiju films, vitamin a well as the longest-running movie franchise in history. [ 312 ] [ 313 ] japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by japanese manga and have become highly popular in the western universe and East Asia. Japan is a world-renowned power station of animation. [ 314 ] [ 315 ] [ 316 ] [ 317 ]


Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony traditionally, sumo is considered Japan ‘s national mutant. [ 318 ] japanese soldierly arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory junior high school course of study. [ 319 ] Baseball is the most popular spectator pump mutant in the country. [ 320 ] Japan ‘s top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. [ 321 ] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide follow. [ 322 ] The area co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. [ 323 ] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the asian Cup four times, [ 324 ] and the FIFA Women ‘s World Cup in 2011. [ 325 ] Golf is besides popular in Japan. [ 326 ] In motorsport, japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in serial such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] [ 329 ] Three japanese drivers have achieved dais finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in accession to success in domestic championships. [ 330 ] [ 331 ] Super GT is the most democratic national series in Japan, while Super Formula is the top floor domestic open-wheel series. [ 332 ] The state hosts major races such as the japanese Grand Prix. [ 333 ] Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. [ 334 ] The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship [ 335 ] and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. [ 336 ] Tokyo hosted the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2021, making Tokyo the beginning asian city to host the Olympics twice. [ 337 ] The area gained the host rights for the official Women ‘s Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. [ 338 ] Japan is the most successful asian Rugby Union country [ 339 ] and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. [ 340 ]

See besides


  1. ^[ɲippoꜜɴ] (

    ) or [ɲihoꜜɴ] (

    ) or

  2. ^[8] In Japanese, the name of the country as it appears on official documents, including the 日本国 ( or Nihon-koku), meaning “State of Japan”. Despite this, the short-form name 日本 (Nippon or Nihon) is also often used officially. In English, the official name of the state is plainly “ Japan ” .In japanese, the name of the nation as it appears on official documents, including the nation ‘s constitution, isor ), meaning “ State of Japan ”. Despite this, the short-form nameor ) is besides often used officially .


General information

  • Japan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Japan profile from BBC News
  • Japan from the OECD
  • Geographic data related to Japan at OpenStreetMap

Read more: FIFA 21 Pro Clubs

Coordinates :